Hadith of Ghadir-e-Khum



Allah, besides Whom there is no God or deity; He described himself: The Knower of the unseen and the seen, the Beneficent, the Merciful, the King of the Holy, Giver of peace, the Granter of security, the Guardian over all, the Mighty, the Supreme, the Possessor of every greatness, the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner. His are the most excellent Names, the Mighty, the Wise – 59:22 to 24
This sermon is taken from Volume 1 of ‘Ihtijaj Tabrasi’ (Whose author was a great scholar, and lived in the sixth century Hijra) and which was printed in the Holy city of Mashhed in the year 1403 A.H.
The Arabic text of ‘introduction’ to the sermon is given in full, while the Persian and English translations of the same have been summarized.
N.B. All the implications of the ‘introduction’ have been given fully in the translation. The translator has made extensive efforts to ensure that the Persian and the English translation of the sermon (The Testament) of the Holy Prophet of Islam, peace be upon him and his progeny (SAW), on the occasion of Ghadir Khum, correspond directly, passage by passage and word for word with the original Arabic text.
The publisher: Reference to the sources of narratives and the history of the incident of Ghadir Khum, together with a brief explanation are also given in this book.
Hadith of Ghadir Khum and the Testament of the Prophet (s.a.w.)
The great scholar Abid Abu Ja’afer Mahdi, the son of Abu Hard el Husaini el Marashi, informed us on the authority of Sheikh Abu Ali Hasan ibn Sheikh Mohammad ibn Hasan el Toosi, who states on the authority of his respected father Abu Ja’afar, who relates from his own father, and he in turn narrates on the authority of a group who have reported it from Abi Mohammad Haroun Ibn Musa Talakbari from Mohammad ibn Homman from Ali Soori, who in turn from Mohammad Alavi and he from Mohammad Ibn Musa Hamadani and he, in turn, from Mohammad Ibn Khalid Tayalesi and he from Saif Ibn Omaira and Saleh Ibn Akaba and from Qais Ibn Sama’an from Alqama Ibn Mohammad Alqami who in turn has quoted from Hazrat Abu Ja’afar Mohammad Ibn Ali el Baqir (a.s.) who stated: “The great Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) had set off on a pilgrimage of the Mosque of Ka’ba, when the angel Jibraeel (Gabriel) appeared from Almighty Allah, saluted the Holy Prophet and said:
“Almighty Allah states that I have never caused the soul of any of the prophets in the past to be taken from his body and returned to Me without the completion of the religion whose mission had been assigned to anyone of them and without the fulfillment of all the evidences and proofs; and for you (in the same way) two obligations are pending fulfillment and you have, therefore, to convey them to the people.”
Firstly, the command relating to the obligatory pilgrimage to Makka (hajj) and the other related to the caliphate and successor of the last Messenger of Allah. You are therefore obliged to make a general proclamation to all, that anyone who has the ability and capacity to perform the pilgrimage to Makka (Hajj) must do so, and you must instruct them on all the functions and rituals that have to be performed by them during the pilgrimage to Makka and they should learn these, just as they have learned from you the conditions of prayers, the payment of poor due and the fast of Ramadhan.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) then deputed one of his companions to inform everyone about the pilgrimage to Makka by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) and to invite everyone capable of performing the pilgrimage to do so in accordance with the rules and regulations relating to this great devotion to Allah (s.w.t.).
After this general and public invitation to Hajj, more than 70,000 people from Madinah and it’s environ accompanied the last of the Apostles, the Holy Prophet of Islam (s.a.w.) on this way to Makka, and they followed and obeyed the Prophet in every action and every act that he performed during the pilgrimage.
The number of Muslims who followed the Prophet, viz. over 70,000 is virtually the same as the number of those who followed Musa Ibn Imran (Moses) peace be upon him, who had appointed his brother Haroon (Aaron) as caliph as well as his successor. However, when Musa (a.s.) had gone to perform some devotions and obligations to Allah, during his absence, his followers broke their pledge and allegiance to his caliph Aaron and began to worship the golden calf made by Samurie, the magician.
The Muslim population which was travelling the distance between Madinah and Makka had developed an extraordinary and impressive sight, especially from the sound of ‘Labbaik, Labbaik’ (verbal declaration of obedience and submissiveness to Allah) of the pilgrims, the hills, deserts, valleys seemed to have joined in with their declaration recitations.
And when they stopped at the halting place (the day of ‘Arafat’ is the commencing day of Hajj rituals), Gabriel descended and said: Allah sends you His salutations and states: Your time of departure, when you shall come to Me and when your material life shall cease, is nearing; You must therefore select your caliph and successor and leave in his trust the inheritance of prophecy and the tradition and verses of prophetic mission (and the inheritance from all prophets, such as personal weapons, coffin, etc.) and whatever has been in your trust. Your cousin (Amirul Mu’Mineen) Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) is My argument and ultimatum to all creatures, he is Allah’s caliph and reason and you must once again introduce him to all people and leave in his trust all knowledge and special teachings. You must seek and obtain this crowd’s allegiance for him.
Everyone must understand that:
The earth shall never be without Allah’s argument (Hujjat) and guardian (warden) and obedience to Allah is absolute and is dependent upon obedience shown to His argument (Hujjat); disobedience and rebellion against the Hujjat (guardian appointed by Allah) is a refusal to obey the order of Allah and greatest sin against Allah. Whoever so breaks his pledge to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) and refuses to recognize his high position and bears enmity towards him in his heart, has of course gone astray from My orders and has become an infidel and a polytheist placing himself in the fire of Hell.
Since the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) was anxious about his people and in particular about the hypocrites amongst them, and having considered their schism, apostasy and blasphemy, and because he was well aware of the enmity and hatred they felt towards Amirul Mu’mineen Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) the prophet through the agency of Gabriel made a supplication to Allah that He should protect him from the evil, treachery and deception of the hypocrites.
The Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) (Awaiting the response of his supplication to Allah) delayed the carrying out of the above Command of Allah until they reached the Khaif Mosque (located in Mina). At this place, the angel descended once again and repeated the former obligation with regard to the introduction of Amirul Mu’mineen Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) and conveyed the order of Allah with respect to forwarding whatsoever the Messenger has inherited from previous prophets (such as personal weapons, shroud, Divine Books etc.) to his successor Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) as well as all previous Commandments and signs of prophethood. (However, he did not mention anything regarding the protection sought by the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) for himself from the evil of the hypocrites).
Once more the Holy prophet (s.a.w.) did not find it opportune at this place to carry out the Command of Allah repeated by the angel Gabriel and moved on until he and his followers reached the oasis of Kara’el Ghanim, which is located between Makka and Madina. Here again the angel Gabriel descended a third time and reminded the prophet (s.a.w.) about the introduction to the people of Amirul Mu’mineen as caliph and successor, but again said nothing about the security of the Holy prophet (s.a.w.) against the evil of his enemies.
So, the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) said to Gabriel: “I am afraid the people shall deny and disregard my instruction with regard to Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.).” The Prophet and his followers moved on until they arrived at the oasis of ‘Ghadir Khum’ (which is approximately three miles from a place now called ‘Johfa’ and at this place, five hours after sunrise, Gabriel descended and after salutation to the Prophet, he recited the following verse from the Qur’an:
‘O Messenger! Deliver what has been revealed to you (with regard to Ali) from your Lord (Nourisher); and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His complete Message, and Allah shall protect you from the people; surely Allah shall not guide the unbelieving people’ – 5:67
This time the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.) resolutely decided to fulfil the Command of Allah and he therefore gave orders that all those who had gone ahead should be told to return to where he was at Ghadir Khum, and all those who were struggling behind should be waited for, and to gather everyone at the halting place (of Ghadir Khum) near the Ghadir Mosque, and to prepare the first steps for the introduction and description of his sermon [regarding the matter of succession and the appointment of Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.)].
There were some trees at that location and the Prophet instructed the ground beneath the trees to be swept and stones laid down to form a pulpit so that the Holy Prophet could address the people from the top of the pulpit and be seen by everyone.
Everyone from those who had gone ahead and those following behind gathered at that place; Allah’s Holy Apostle placed himself on top of the stones and commenced the heavenly instructions and Divine Message and his long, fluent and appealing words, thus:
The Sermon of Ghadir Khum (The Testament)
Praise and eulogies are due to Allah whose Unity is sublime and whose uniqueness and incomparability in matter of proximity is clear and His magnificence in matters of creativity is everlasting and His encompassibility of particles of being and existence is evident and His control and supervision over the entire universe is apparent and all the creatures and creation are under His Power and His Reasoning, with a glory and greatness that never declines.
He is the Praised One, the Creator of the Heavens and all the galaxies. He is the Ruler of the Heavens and the Earth, while being worthy of sanctification and transcendence. The Creator of all angels and of the Holy spirits, His extended Favours to all His creatures and His endless Blessings have encompassed the Universe of Being. He sees and controls the entire existence, but no naked eyes are ever able to see Him. His Grace and Greatness, His Forbearance, His Fortitude and Mercy envelop the entire creation. He has made the entire universe indebted to Him through His unlimited and boundless blessings, and yet He does not hasten to take revenge or impose punishment on those who are rebellious against Him, even though they deserve chastisement and punishment. He is Aware of all secrets and the hidden inner selves, and all that is hidden is clear and evident to Him. He encompasses and observes each and every particle of the universe (nothing is obscured from Him), whilst everything is within His Power and is subservient to Him.
He is Omnipotent and Powerful over everything; there is no other like Him. He has brought forth creation from nothingness when all of creation was naught.
He is the Everlasting and Eternal who rules by justice and equity. There is no other dominant, omniscient, omnipotent and wise deity but He. He is far nobler and more sublime for His Holy Supreme Being to be seen, but He Himself is Aware of all thoughts and ideas and the inner eyes. He has full knowledge of every action and every sin committed by His servants and yet under those same conditions He is Forgiving and Merciful toward them. No one can ever describe Him or claim to have seen Him in any manner, save what He Himself has said about Himself, and there is no way anyone can fathom the depths of the mysteries with regard to His creation, whether the creation be covert or overt, except anyone who has been guided towards it by Him.
I bear witness to Allah Whose sanctification and extreme Holiness has encompassed all being, and the radiance of His Compassion has illuminated all existence from one end to the other, His Order and rule Command all existence. Allah that is determined to be comes to being by virtue of His absolute Might and without any consultation and assistance. His design and scheme is unalterable. His creation is unique and has no comparison, and no one has ever assisted Him in these matters. His creation came into being without any pre-planning, without any toil and tribulation and it came into being instantly by His Command of His Wish.
Verily He is the One True Allah; there is no other sustainer or creation except Him. What He has created is sedate and subtle and its function is beautiful and good. The Dispenser of Justice unto whom, Holy of Holies, no transgression nor any persecution nor any injustice can have any access. The Sublime and the Exalted unto whom everything and all events are related and shall return.
I bear witness that every being is humble in the presence of His Greatness and before whose Reverence and Power everything is insignificant and weak. He is the controller and rotator of the galaxies and all the celestial bodies and He is the true Owner and Master of the universe of being. All heavenly bodies, the sun and the moon, move along their pre-determined paths at His Will.
It is He Who covers the light of the day by the darkness of night and turns the darkness of night to the light of day. The rebellious ones have fallen in confrontation with His Divine vengeance; He destroys every satanic rebel. No one has the strength to confront and oppose Him. He has no equal or likeness.
He is absolutely self-sufficient and unique. He is the ultimate objective towards whom all are oriented.
It is inconceivable for Him to beget someone or be Himself begotten and He has no one comparable and similar to Himself. He has been and shall be the ever Eternal.
He is the absolute Sustainer of the entire world. The Sustainer with such Grace and Greatness that what He wills is created. He is fully aware of all that is created and knows their number and their count. He is the taker, giver and the reviver of life. He impoverishes the rich and renders the poor self-sufficient. It is He Who makes a person laugh and another one weep. It is He Who brings near one to another and distances one from the other. He withholds and grants.
All existence is His and all thanks and praise are His. All virtues and goodness and good fortune are in his Mighty Hands and He is capable and Powerful over all things. He turns night to day and day to night. There is no forgiving and merciful deity but He. He knows the count of every breath of all His creation. He is the creator of all Jinn and mankind and nothing is difficult or troublesome for Him.
He is not wearied or troubled by the wails and cries of the helpless ones and the supplicators. He is the protector and guardian of the virtuous against sin and the provider of grace for the delivered, and He is the source of all nourishment and sustenance for the whole world.
It is appropriate for all creatures to express their thanks and gratitude towards Him. In comfort and ease, in discomfort and difficulty and in every state I am grateful to Him. My faith is in Him, and I certify and admit to His angels, Divine Books and all His prophets.
I hear His Commands and obey His orders. I submit to His Will and I seek to obey Him. I am His slave and servant while I fear His retribution, for He is Allah, from Whose retribution no refuge or safe haven can be found, even though no one may fear any cruelty or persecution from Him.
I admit being His slave and servant and I bear witness to the fact that He is my Sustainer. I carry out His Commands as He reveals them to me. I fear a calamity, that no thoughtful and prudent person is able to repulse shall befall me if I refrain from executing that which I have received.
There is no deity except He worthy of worship. He has made it known to me that if I do not convey what has been revealed to me, I have not fulfilled my prophetic mission as His apostle. Allah has guaranteed to protect me, the Merciful Compassionate Allah is sufficient for me.
Allah had divinely revealed to me: "O Messenger, deliver what has been revealed to you (with regard to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.)) from your Lord (Nourisher); and if you do it not, you have not delivered His complete message; and Allah shall protect you from the people; surely Allah shall not guide the unbelieving people".
O people! I have not neglected in conveying to you what has been Divinely revealed to me, and I shall explain to you the reason for this revelation; the Archangel Gabriel appeared before me and he conveyed the salutations of Allah to me and Commanded to me to break my journey at this place and convey to you the Divine revelation he brought unto me. Therefore, announce such that everyone shall know, both black and white become aware, that Ali Ibn Abi Talib is my brother, my successor and the religious leader (Imam) of you all after me, and his position relative to me is like Haroun’s position in relation to Musa, except that there shall be no prophet or messenger after me; after Allah and Allah’s Messenger, he is your ruler, guardian and religious leader and this Command had been issued by Allah. This verse is from Allah’s Holy Book:
"It is this and only this that; only Allah is your Vali (Guardian), and His prophet (Messenger), and those who keep up prayers and pay the poor rater (due) while they bow in their prayers". – 5:55
It is Ali Ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) who stood up to pray and during the state of bowing in prayer he gave the poor due and he seeks the pleasure of Allah is every state.
O people! I asked the Archangel Gabriel if it is possible for Allah to excuse me from conveying this Divine Command because I know that the pious are few in number and the hypocrites are plenty, and the sinful corruption rousers who ridicule and scheme against Islam are innumerable, and Allah Almighty introduces them in the Holy Qur’an in the following words: "They have no faith in what they say with their tongues, and they consider this to be an insignificant matter, and yet, in the sight of Allah, it is a very great thing".
They have hurt me much, and have alleged that I accept whatever I hear, they called me all (ears) and they think I am like so, because Ali (a.s.) is very closely connected to me and I favoured him. Until the Almighty and Glorious responded to them by descending a revelation and so stated:
"And there are others among them who speak ill of the Prophet, saying: 'He believes everything he hears.' Say,'He hears only what is good for you. He believes in Allah and puts his trust in the faithful. He is blessing to the true believers among you. Those that wrong the apostle of Allah shall be sternly punished." 9:61.
If I wish to reveal their names I could do so, and if I wish, I could point them out and if I want to describe them I could describe them; but by Allah, I am very generous to them and with all this generosity, Allah shall not be pleased with me unless and until I convey what has been Divinely revealed to me (about Ali).
"O Messenger! Deliver what has been revealed to you; and if you do it not, you have not delivered His complete Message; and Allah shall protect you from the people; surely Allah does not guide the unbelieving people".
O people! Know that Allah has ordained Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) as the ruler and guardian of you in your affairs, and your patron and your leader and He has installed him with this distinction. He has made submission to him obligatory to all the Mohajirs and Ansaars and all the rest of the people, be they city dwellers or nomads of the wilderness, be they Arabs or non-Arabs, slaves or free men, be they children or adults, white or black, anyone who worships Allah should obey Ali’s command and must verify his sayings and carry out his orders.
He who opposes him is accursed. One who obeys him is graced by Allah. One who accepts him with this distinction is the one who is a saved believer. Allah forgives those who obey and execute his orders.
O people! This is the last place where I have risen to convey Allah’s Commandment; therefore listen, obey and surrender yourself to your Lord’s Command. Allah the Almighty and Glorious is your Creator. He is your Guardian and He is your Deity and He is the One you worship, and after Allah, His Messenger Mohammad (s.a.w.) who is now speaking to you is guardian of your affairs and your patron, and after me Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) is your guardian, patron and leader (Imam) who has been appointed to this position by Allah’s Command. After Ali (a.s.) the leadership of people (Imamat) shall be for his sons who are of my progeny. They shall be Allah’s proof and argument (Hujjat) over creation until the day on which you shall meet your creator the Almighty and Glorious Allah. Praise be upon Him and His Prophet.
Nothing has been allowed unless Allah has permitted it, and nothing has been prohibited except that which has been forbidden by Allah. Every permitted and prohibited item that Allah has taught me, I have taught the same to Ali (a.s.).
O people! There is no knowledge that Allah has not entrusted in me, and I have taught Ali the leader of the pious, all Divine Knowledge entrusted in me and I have entrusted it in Ali and he is your true and manifest leader (Imam).
O people! Let it not be that you leave Ali solitary and alone and do not distance yourselves from him, do not refuse to obey his leadership, and avoid arrogance over his guardianship of you. He is the only one who can guide you towards the truth and he acts according to the truth, and obliterates what is false and shall hold you back from falsehood, In the path of righteousness, he does not fear the blame of those who blame. O people! Ali is the first of all who had faith and believed in Allah and His Messenger and truly acted to sacrifice his life to save the life of the Messengership of Allah. He is the first to worship Allah alongside the Messenger of Allah at a time when no other man except he worshipped Allah with me.
O people! Regard Ali (a.s.) superior to the rest, and consider him great and worthy of respect. Allah has graced him with excellence. Obey him, for Allah has selected him for the caliphate.
O people! Ali (a.s.) is your Imam and guardian appointed by Allah. Allah shall never accept repentance and excuse from anyone who denies Ali’s right of guardianship and rulership and leadership over you and such a person shall certainly not be forgiven and shall never achieve salvation. Anyone who rejects the Divine Command with regard to the leadership of Ali is bound to be subjected to Allah’s Wrath and retribution that shall never end. Therefore, o people! Beware not to oppose Ali (a.s.) and fear endless fire for the sinners; this is the fire that has been prepared for infidels.
O people! I swear by Allah that prophets and messengers of Allah have given good tidings of my apostleship and I am the last of all prophets and messengers. With me, apostleship shall come to an end and I am also the Divine Proof and Reason to all creation in the heavens and on the earth. Whoever doubts this is a disbeliever and an infidel and he shall be of the pagan days of darkness and the age of ignorance, and whoever doubts even one of my statements does in fact doubt all my statements and thus his residence shall be Hell.
O people! This eminence and excellence has been Divinely endowed to me and this is a great favour to me from the Creator and Sustainer. There is no deity worthy or worship except He. My gratitude and praise be always to Him for ever and ever and for all times to come and in all circumstances.
O people! Accept the excellence and eminence of Ali and surrender your selves to his leadership and command, because, after me, he is superior to all men and women. Allah has bestowed the sustenance of all creation because of us, and through our agency and by virtue of our intercession He has stabilized the systematic organization of all creation.
He is accursed; he is far from Allah’s Mercy, he is far from Allah’s Mercy, he is worthy of Allah’s wrath, he is worthy of Allah’s wrath, whoever rejects my statements and disregards Ali’s religious leadership and guardianship.
Be aware that the Archangel Gabriel has informed me on behalf of Allah that the Almighty has said: Allah’s Curse and Wrath unto whoever bears enmity towards Ali (a.s.). Everyone must therefore observe what he has sent for the Day of Reckoning.
Fear Allah if you should oppose Ali and fear making such a blunder after you have been steadfast and resolute in the matter, for Allah is Aware of all that you do.
O people! Ali is with the truth and on the side of Allah and Allah has stated in His Holy Book: "The rebellious ones shall at the time of their death experience despair and sorrow as to why they turned away from the one who supports the truth and is on Allah’s side". – 39:56
O people! Reflect carefully in understanding the meanings of the Holy Qur’an. Comprehend the verses of the Holy Book of Allah. Pay attention to those verses of the Qur’an that are self-evident and do not follow your own desires in those verses of the Qur’an which are not clear to you. I swear by Allah that no one can or shall ever be able to clarify for you the prohibitions stated in the Holy Qur’an, neither shall he explain and elucidate for you the subtleties and meanings of the Book of Allah, except he whose hand is in my hand and whose arm I have raised, and I hereby proclaim that, the leader and the master of whomsoever I am, Ali is his master and leader. And he, Ali Ibn Abi Talib is my brother and my successor and whose lordship and leadership over you has been declared by Almighty and Glorious Allah which has been Divinely revealed to me.
O people! Know that, from an assessment point of view, there are two weighty invaluable things which are always together, viz. Ali and the pure ones from my progeny, the important and the weighty minor ones, and the Holy Qur’an, the important and weighty major one, and both of them give news and inform each other and they are completely compatible with one another and they shall not separate from one another until they enter unto me on the Day of Judgement, Ali and the pure ones from my progeny are the trustees of Allah amongst people and they are His rulers and appointed guardians on earth.
Surely know that I have fulfilled my prophetic mission.
Surely know that I have conveyed whatever I had to convey to you.
Surely know that I have stated it loudly and you have clearly heard it.
Surely know what I have clearly manifested it for you.
Surely know that the Glorious Almighty Allah said and I have stated on His behalf.
Be aware that the Commander of the Faithful is no one except my brother Ali Ibn Abi Talib, and that after me this status for the Commander of the Faithful is not valid or permitted for anyone else except Ali.
(The prophet (s.a.w.) then grasped Ali (a.s.)’s arm and raised him so high that his feet became level with the prophet’s knees. The prophet (s.a.w.) then declared):
O people! This is Ali Ibn Abi Talib, my brother and successor and the one in whom all my knowledge is stored and who has fully attained my knowledge. He is my caliph and successor unto my people, my followers, and he is the only able commentator of Almighty and Glorious Allah’s Holy Book. He is the one who shall invite you towards Allah and he is active in deeds that are subject of Allah’s pleasure and consent. He rises to fight against the enemies of Allah and befriends those who obey Allah. He prevents people from shining against Allah by disobeying Him.
He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah and he is the Commander of the Faithful and he is the guided Imam.
By Allah’s Command he wages holy war against the pledge breakers, transgressors, tyrants, and those who have left and fled the path of Allah’s religion. What I am saying is by my Creator, Allah’s Command and not according to my own desire.
By order of Almighty Allah, I say O' Allah! Befriend whoever befriends Ali and be an enemy to whoever bears enmity towards Ali; curse and distance from your Grace and Mercy those who deny and renounce his leadership and descend Your Wrath upon those who deprive him of his rights.
O Almighty Allah the Sustainer! You have sent down your Command to me, that after me You have made the leadership of the people exclusive to Ali your friend, and You have Commanded me to inform the people of this by explanation and clarification and that I should appoint him as the leader of the people and thus:
You have finally completed the religion for Your subjects and You have fulfilled unto them your Favour and You are pleased with Your servants for having Islam as their religion, and You have stated: “And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers”. – 3:85
O Almighty Allah! I hold you as my witness, for I have conveyed Your Command and Your testimony is sufficient for me.
O people! It can only be this and nothing else that Allah Almighty and Glorious has perfected your religion by virtue of Ali’s leadership. So those who do not follow and obey him and my progeny who are of his descent and shall take his position after him and shall be the leaders and guardians until the Day of Judgement, shall enter unto Allah Almighty and Glorious on the Day of Judgement, while their deeds have become void, spoiled and corroded, and they shall abide and have eternal residence in the Fire, and there shall be no reduction in their torture and suffering. They shall not be subjected to any kindness.
O people! Ali Ibn Abi Talib has been a greater help to me than anyone of you. He has therefore been more deserving and nearer to me than anyone of you and he has been dearer to Allah and more worthy of honour and grace and both Allah Almighty and Glorious and I are well pleased with him.
No verse in the Holy Qur’an expressing Allah’s pleasure has been descended except with regard to the and nowhere have the pious been addressed except when it has been addressed to Ali first and no verse expressing praise has been descended but for him. Testimony to heaven in the ‘Hal Ataa Alal Insaan’ has not been given but for him, and this chapter which praises no one except him, has been descended for no one else but him.
O people! He is the helper of Allah’s religion and he debated on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. He is the chaste and the pious and the leader and guide and one who has been Divinely Guided. Your prophet is the best of all prophets and his successor is the best of the successors of prophets and his progeny who shall also be his successors are the best of all progeny of other prophets.
O people! The progeny of every prophet is from his descent and my progeny shall be of Ali’s descent.
O people! Satan, because of the jealousy he possessed, succeeded in getting Adam thrown out of paradise. Take great care not to be jealous of Ali, for your deeds shall be rendered null and void and you shall go astray.
O people! Indeed Adam was sent down to earth due to a minor slip, even though he was the Almighty and Glorious Allah’s chosen one. While you are what you are, many of you are enemies of Allah.
Beware that no one bears enmity to Ali but the unfortunate ones, no one but the virtuous and the chaste shall befriend him, and no one shall have faith in him except one whose faith is pure. I swear by Allah, the chapter has been descended with regard to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali:
“In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. I swear by the time. Surely man is in a state of loss, except those who believe in Allah and do good deeds, and they exhort to one another the truth and enjoin on each other patience and forbearance”. – 103:1 to 3
O people! May Allah be my witness that I have fulfilled my mission and obligation, and conveyed the Command of Allah to you and there is no other evident obligation to be fulfilled by the one who has been sent by Allah as prophet and messenger.
O people! Fear Allah and perform those good deeds that are duly expected of the virtuous, so that you die as Muslims.
O people! Believe in Allah and His Prophet, and also believe in the light that has been sent to him before all your doings are rendered useless and you look back in despair.
O people! The absolute light is from Allah Almighty and Glorious and that light has come to be inside me and Ali shall be the repository of the light after me, and after him the personalities of his descent shall be the resting place of this light until the time of Qaim Mahdi, one who shall reveal and manifest the truth and restore the right that has been taken away from us. Because Allah Almighty and Glorious has made us the Proof unto those who fall short of their obligations, they are stubborn and bear enmity and hostility, they oppose and commit treason and they are sinful and transgressing and tyrannical and take away the rights of others.
O People! I warn you of your evil doings and I am Allah’s Messenger to you, and there were Messengers and Apostles of Allah before me who came to guide mankind, so if I die or I am killed, shall you return to the ways of your forefathers?
Whoever turns away from Islam and joins his predecessors, he can never harm Allah and Allah shall soon reward those who are grateful to Him.
Be it known to you that Ali is characterized by his endurance and forbearance and gratitude to Allah and after him my progeny who are from his descent are also patient and grateful to Allah. O people! Do not presume to impose any favours on Allah for becoming Muslims, for if you do so, Allah shall be Wrathful against you and He shall inflict dire punishment on you, for He is Watchful over your deeds.
O people! Very soon after me many who presume to be your leader shall invite you towards the Fire of Hell and they shall not find any helper on the Day of Resurrection.
O people! Know that Allah the Sublime and Holy and I are displeased and weary of them.
O people! Be aware that they and their followers shall find their place in the very depths of Hell and unpleasant is the place of the proud ones.
Be aware that they are the parties of Saqifa.
O people! I leave the Imamat and leadership of the people as hereditary amongst my progeny until the Day of Judgement and that I have conveyed to you what I had been instructed to do so, and this communication of the Messenger is proof and argument to those who are present as well as those who are absent and to those who are witnessing it by being present as well as those who are not here and those who have been born and those who have not yet been born. It is necessary; therefore, that those who are present should convey this communication to the absentees and fathers should convey it to their children, until the Day of Resurrection.
O people! Very soon the religious leadership of the people shall be usurped and will transform into world kingdoms.
Allah’s curse be upon those who shall usurp and those who shall help and assist the usurpers. The Almighty Sustainer shall very soon settle accounts with both the Jinns, as well as mankind, to reward or punish according to their deeds. He shall then light up the fire of Hell and release melted copper unto the rebellious and disobedient ones, which they shall not be able to ward off. O people! Allah Almighty and Glorious has not left you free to do as you please and this freedom of action is to allow the separation of the pure from the impure and Allah has not granted you knowledge of the unknown.
O people! The people of cities and towns and villages were only destroyed by Allah’s Command because they had denied and belied the words of the Divine Messengers sent to them, and Allah destroys the people of any land who are transgressors and He has mentioned and revealed their names in His Holy Book; be it known that Ali is your Imam and be it known that he is one of the promise and appointments made by Allah, and Allah fulfils all His Promises.
O people! Most of your predecessors went astray and Allah destroyed them and He shall also destroy their remainders, just as Allah Almighty and Sublime has stated:
"Did We not destroy the former generations? Then did We follow them up with later ones. Even thus shall We deal with the guilty. Woe on that day to the rejecters." – 77:16 to 19
O people! Allah has commanded me and forbidden me and I have done the same to Ali and Ali became aware of what Allah Almighty and Glorious revealed to me in matters of command and prohibition. So, listen and obey his commands so that you may be safe from the Wrath of Allah and be obedient to His Command in order to remain pious and well guided and abstain from what he prohibits you in order to prosper and act according to his wishes and do not alter your way from His way, and do not allow various other ways to diver you from His path.
O people! I am the Divine right path whom Allah has Commanded you to obey and follow, and after me it is Ali, and after Ali, Ali’s infallible progeny who are the guides towards righteousness and are the guardians and leaders of the people and invite everyone to obey the commands of Allah.
"In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds. The Beneficent, the Merciful. Master of the Day of Judgement. Thee do we serve and Thee do we beseech for help. Keep us on the right path. The path of those upon whom Thou hast bestowed favours. Not of those upon whom Thy Wrath is brought down, nor of those who go astray." – 1:1 to 7
O people! The Sura of Fateha has been descended with regard to myself and Amirul Mu’mineen Ali and my progeny and it is exclusive and specific to them, and they are the true friends and saints of Allah. They have no reason to be afraid or to be anxious. They shall not be sad or sorrowful.
Let it be known to you that the party of Allah is triumphant.
Be aware that the enemies of Amirul Mo’mineen Ali (a.s.) cause dissension and disagreements and enmity and they are also enemies of each other, and they are brethren of Satan and they inspire one another, and their disorderly speech is the result of their self-deception and their ignorance, they flatter each other by decorated empty words.
Be aware that the friends of Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) and my progeny are the believers who have accepted faith in Allah and Allah Almighty and Glorious in His Book has admired and described them thus:
“You shall not find a people who believe in Allah and the latter day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and his Apostle, even though they were their fathers, or their sons, or their brothers or their kinfolk, these are they into whose hearts He has impressed faith, and whom He has strengthened with an inspiration from Him; And He will cause them to enter gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding therein; Allah is well-pleased with them and they are well-pleased with Him; These are Allah’s party; Now surely the party of Allah are the successful ones”. – 58:22
Be aware that Allah Almighty and Sublime admires and describes the friends of Ali and my progeny thus:
“Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with iniquity, those are they who shall have the security and they are those who go aright”. – 6:82
Be aware that Allah Almighty and Sublime admires and describes the friends of Ali and my progeny thus:
“They are those who shall enter paradise and they shall be at peace and security and they shall meet the angels of Allah as they welcome them and give them tidings that you are in the everlasting paradise”. – 39:73
Be aware that Allah Almighty and Sublime admires and describes the friends of Ali and my progeny thus:
“They are those who shall enter paradise without any questioning and accountability”. – 40:40
Be aware that the enemies of Ali (a.s.) and my progeny are those that shall be dragged to the fire of Hell.
Be aware that the enemies of Ali and my progeny are those who hear the roar of hell and they see the blazing flames of the fire that surges up and every group that enters hell curses other groups.
Be aware that the enemies of Ali and my progeny are those about whom Allah Almighty and Glorious has said:
“Whenever a group is cast into it, its keeper shall ask them: Did there not come to you a warner? They shall say: Yea! Indeed there came to us a warner, but we rejected and said: Allah has not revealed anything; you are only in great error”. – 67:8 to 9
Let it be known to you that the friends of Ali and my progeny are those who fear Allah, in secret and in concealment, and believe in the unseen and have faith in the unknown and their faith shall be the cause of their salvation and their great reward.
O people! There is a great difference between Paradise and Hell. Our enemies are those who have been slandered reproached and cursed by Allah and our friends are those whom Allah has praised and called them His friends.
O people! Know that I am a warner and Ali is your guide.
O people! I am your Messenger and Ali is my successor and your guardian.
Be aware that the last of the religious leaders shall also be from my progeny and my descendants and he is the living and upright and the guided man of Allah, blessings and peace be upon him.
Be aware that he shall be triumphant over all the nations of different religions.
Be aware that he shall take revenge against transgressors.
Be aware that he shall capture all forts and castles, and raise them to the ground.
Be aware that he shall annihilate all polytheists of every race and nation.
Be aware that he shall take revenge for the blood of the friends of Allah that were shed.
Be aware that he is the supporter of Allah’s religion.
Be aware that he is the ship’s helmsman sailing through strong seas.
Be aware that, by virtue of his excellence and superiority, he is an eloquent sign for every wise or foolish person.
Be aware that he is the inheritor of all knowledge and his knowledge encompasses all other knowledge.
Be aware he is the conveyor of Almighty and Glorious Allah’s Commands and he elucidates His Orders.
Be aware his path is the path of truth and he is the wise and the guided one.
Be aware that the affairs of all creation have been submitted to him.
Be aware that all Apostles and religions have given glad tidings of his existence.
Be aware that he is the last of Allah’s proofs and after him there is no further proof, there is no other truth in the world except with him, and there is no other knowledge and wisdom but it is with him.
Be aware that no one shall prevail and triumph against him.
Be aware that he is Allah’s friend and representative on earth and his order and command is the order and command of Allah and Allah the Sustainer has made him aware of his hidden and evident secrets of creation.
O people! I have enlightened you with all that was necessary for you to know and understand and after me Ali shall explain whatever is necessary for you.
O people! After my sermon has ended, I invite you to shake hands with me as a token of your allegiance to Ali and then to confess Ali as your religious leader; shake hands with Ali in my presence and congratulate him.
Be aware I have made a pledge to Allah and Ali had made an oath of allegiance to me and I, on behalf of Allah Almighty and Glorious, extract your oath of allegiance for Ali. So whoever breaks his pledge shall himself suffer the loss.
O people! The walking between Safa and Marwa is the slogan of obedience ordained by Allah; whoever performs Hajj to the House of Allah or performs Umrah, it is incumbent upon him that he should make the circumambulation along Safa and Marwa and anyone who does good deeds, Allah shall reward him accordingly and He is aware of all actions of His servants.
O people! Go to visit the House of Allah. No family shall enter Makka on Hajj unless he be enriched by the Host and any family which is rebellious shall become poor and impoverished.
O people! No faithful servant of Allah shall stop at the halting place of Hajj without Allah forgiving all his past sins and his life shall be renewed and he shall continue his deeds.
O people! Those who perform Hajj are subjected to special help and kindness and they shall be compensated for all their expenditure in the way of Allah in this world, and rewards shall be stored for them in the hereafter, and Allah does not permit the good deeds of any virtuous person to be lost.
O people! Make your visit to the House of Allah a means of accomplishing perfection in your religion and give charity in the Name of Allah, and do not return from the blessed place without repenting your sins, and resolutely decide that you shall pull away from sins and that you shall never again commit sins.
O people! Establish prayer and give in charity according to the way Allah has Commanded you and whenever you neglect to fulfill His Commands or you forget the way of life and action that He has Commanded you to perform, then know Allah’s friend Ali is your guardian and the elucidator of the Commandments of Allah to you.
Allah Almighty and Glorious has appointed him to this position amongst you, after me, Ali, whom Allah has appointed to this position is from me and whatever questions you ask he shall answer you correctly and explain to you what you do not know.
Be aware that what is permitted and forbidden into the Divine Command is too extensive for me to explain and enumerate them all for you in one place and time.
However, I order you to perform what is permitted by Allah and forbid you from doing what is prohibited by Allah, and I have been tasked to conclude the argument and proof to you and for the acceptance of what Allah has revealed to me, I must obtain your oath of allegiance to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali, the Commander of the Faithful and also that I should make known to you those religious leaders who shall succeed him from amongst my children who are of his descent and who shall become leaders after him. Those religious leaders are guides, the last of whom, Hazrat Mahdi, shall be the living and the rightly guided one and who shall be the proof of Allah amongst His creation until the Day of Judgement and who shall rule according to the truth.
O people! I have not changed or altered every permitted act that I have reasoned with you for, and every prohibited act I have warned you against. I have never gone back on what I have said and made no alterations to it.
Be aware that it is for you to remember and retain them in your minds and exhort one another to them and do not alter them.
Be aware that I am again repeating what I have said. Know and understand that you must establish prayers and give in charity, order people to do what is good and forbid them from committing evil actions and remember the best way of ordering good is for you to remain steadfast with regard to what I have said, and convey them to those who are not present here today and prevail upon them to accept it and forbid them from opposing it. This is a Command that Allah Almighty and Glorious has issued through me and know that the order to perform good deeds and prohibition against evil must always be carried out under the guidance of an infallible Imam.
O people! Allah introduces the religious leaders in the Holy Qur’an and those religious leaders who are to follow Ali are from amongst his descendants and I have also introduced them to you that they are my progeny and I am their father; they are from me and I am from them, just as Allah Almighty and Sublime states in His Holy Book.

“And He made it a word to continue in his posterity”. – 43:28

I have informed you, as long as the Holy Qur’an and my progeny are your guides, you shall not go astray.
O people! Be virtuous, abstain and distance yourselves from sin and fear the Day of Judgement. Allah Almighty and Glorious states:

“The violent earthquake of the Hour is a great, grievous thing”. – 22:1

Think of death and do not forget the time of questioning and assessment of deeds, for your account shall finally be seen to, in Allah’s just court, and you shall be rewarded and punished for good and bad deeds respectively.
O people! Your population and crowd is far too large for me to shake each one of you by the hand. Allah Almighty and Glorious has instructed me to obtain a verbal confession and allegiance from you for the religious leadership and guardianship of Amirul Mu’mineen Ali and the leaders that shall follow him and whom I have introduced to you, they are my children and progeny of his descent, then all of you confess and say:
We have heard and we obey and we are content and we heed what you have commanded us on behalf of Allah our Nourisher and your Nourisher about the religious leadership of Ali and the religious leadership of his children and descendants ho shall succeed him. And we swear our oath of allegiance with our hearts and with our souls and with our hands and tongues and we shall remain firm in this oath for as long as we live and when we die, we are resurrected from the death. We shall make no change in our allegiance to him and to them and we shall have no doubts with regard to this oath of allegiance and we shall not alter or convert and we shall not doubt or turn away and break our pledge and we shall obey Allah and we shall be obedient to you and we shall carry out the commands of Amirul Mo’mineen Ali and his children and successors and we shall be obedient to the religious leaders who you have introduce to us, who are your progeny and of Ali’s descent after Hasan and Husayn.
The prophet (s.a.w.) added:
I have explained the position of both these to you, Al Hasan and Al Husayn, and I have also clarified their honoured status in the sight of Almighty and Glorious Allah, that these two are the leaders and masters of the youths of paradise and after their father they shall be religious leaders and guardians of my people.
Be it known to you that I and Amirul Mu’mineen Ali are the grandfather and father of these two. So now repeat once again:
“We obey Allah and you and also give our obedience to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali, Hasan and Husayn and his progeny that you nominated, and we swear allegiance to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali with our hearts, our souls, our tongues, and we give out oath of allegiance to anyone who has aligned himself with and sworn allegiance to Amirul Mo’mineen Ali and we shall shake his hand as a token of our loyalty, and we undertake never to alter our allegiance and never to disobey it. And we seek Allah to bear witness in this loyalty and His testimony is sufficient. You also bear witness to us, and all those who obey you, be they present or absent, the angels and servants of Allah, and all pious bear witness to us, and Allah’s testimony is the greatest and most supreme of all”.
O people! Allah hears what you say and He is aware of your innermost thoughts and conscience. Whoever obeys shall be guided and whoever goes astray shall himself suffer its loss. Anyone who swears allegiance to Amirul Mu’mineen Ali has pledged loyalty to Allah Almighty and Glorious and the Powerful Hand of Allah is the greatest of all hands.
O people! Fear Allah and pledge your allegiance to Amirul Mu’mineeen Ali and Hasan and Husayn; know that he and his sons, Hasan and Husayn and the leaders thereafter, are the pure word of Allah who remain on earth, and Allah Almighty shall destroy anyone who betrays, and He is Merciful to the one who remains loyal and faithful. Whoever breaks his pledge has transgressed unto himself.
O people! Repeat what I have said to you and salute Ali by addressing him as Amirul Mu’mineen and say:
O Allah Almighty! We have heard and listened and we have obeyed and we seek Your forgiveness and we shall all return to you and say:
Praise and Gratitude be to Allah, for He has guided us to this fact and had He not guided us we would not have achieved salvation.
O People! The virtuous qualities of Amirul Mu’mineen Ali are recorded by Allah Almighty and Glorious and He has mentioned them in the Holy Qur’an and these virtuous qualities are far too numerous to be explained in one gathering, so whoever learnt the virtuous qualities of Ali and brought them to your attention, accept his word and verify what he has said.
O people! All those who obey Allah and the Messenger of Allah and Ali, Amirul Mu’mineen, and all the religious leaders whom I have introduced to you shall achieve great salvation.
O people! Those who hasten to pledge their allegiance to Ali and love him and regard him as their Master and surrender to his will, and address him as Amirul Mu’mineen, shall be graced with all the goodness and blessings of Allah in Paradise.
O people! Say words which shall please Allah and remember if you and all the people on earth become infidels you shall never harm Allah in any way.
O Allah! Forgive all male and the female pious believers and send down Your Wrath unto disbelievers. Praise and gratitude is exclusive to the Nourisher of all the worlds.
The people then said with one voice:
"We have heard and we obey with all our hearts, tongues and hands, the Command of Allah and His Messenger".
The people then swarmed forward and shook hands with the prophet (s.a.w.) and Ali (a.s.) and pledged their allegiance to both of them.
The first, the second, the third, the fourth and the fifth persons were the first people to offer their handshakes and thus pledge their loyalties to the prophet (s.a.w.) and Amirul Mu’mineen (a.s.); after whom the migrants, followed by the natives of Madina and thereafter the rest of the Muslims from all walks of life did the same.
After shaking hands, the prophet (s.a.w.) stood to evening and night prayers without respite between them, after which everyone renewed their pledge to the honourable prophet (s.a.w.) and Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) for a second and third time in succession.
While the people were shaking hands and pledging their loyalty and allegiance to the prophet and Amirul Mu’mineen, the honourable prophet (s.a.w.) successively repeated: “Our thanks and gratitude are to Allah who has placed us above and superior to all the people.
And hence from then on, shaking of hands has come to signify the pledging of allegiance amongst Muslims”.
Hazrat Imam Ja’far Al Sadiq (a.s.) stated:
Once the ceremony of swearing allegiance had come to an end, the people observed a very dignified, handsome and pleasant smelling person who addressed the people, saying: “I swear by Allah, I have not seen Mohammad [S.A.W.] obtain such an allegiance from the people for his cousin and achieve such a firm agreement and promise, as I have witnessed today. I swear by Allah that none shall be able to violate this agreement except the atheist to Allah and His Messenger. Whoever breaks this pledge of loyalty shall be rewarded with the painful Fire of Hell.
At this point Omar Ibn Khattab, who had heard the spoken words of this man had become surprised at his manner of dignified speech, having looked at the man deeply, then faced the prophet (s.a.w.) and said: ‘Did you hear this man’s statement?’ The Holy Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.) asked Omar: “Did you recognize that man?” Omar replied, “No”. The prophet (s.a.w.) said: “He was the honest Archangel Gabriel. Take great care not to break this pledge! For should you violate this agreement, Allah, His Messenger and Allah’s angels shall be estranged, disgusted and weary of you.”
The following verse was then revealed:
“Today I have perfected your religion and completed My blessings unto you, and chose Islam, which is the best religion for you” – 5:3
Hafiz Abu Ja’far Mohammad bin Jurair Tabari (deceased in the year 310 AH) states in his book (Al Wilayah) quoting Zayd Bin Arqam, just as Hafiz Bin Mardawayh Isbahani deceased in the year 410 AH narrates, quoting Abi Saeed Khidri, that the aforementioned verse was descended after the honourable prophet (s.a.w.) introduced Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.) as caliph and successor and stated that: ‘The leader and master of whomsoever I am, Ali is his leader and master after me’. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer Vol. 2). For further information refer to the Al Ghadir book of Allamah Amini, Vol 1.
Thanks and gratitude be to Allah Who has perfected his religion by the appointment of Amirul Mu’mineen Ali (a.s.). And thanks and Praise be to Allah Who has included us among those who have accepted the leadership and guardianship of our master Amirul Mu’mineen and his infallible progeny, Allah’s peace be upon them all.
Dear Readers,
Salamun Alaikum!
I am very much happy to announce that, I have found out a very important message of Islam in our (Sunni) authentic Books and I was surprised that I have never heard before regarding this matter. When I asked the Ulema, they never gave me a satisfactory answer, saying that don't go so much deep in Islam otherwise you will be confused. I have worked hard to achieve this truth because Allah says, "And [as for] those who strive hard for Us, We will most certainly guide them in Our ways, and Allah is most surely with the doers of good". (Holy Quran Ch.29: Ayat 69) The word strive [Jihad] in the Qur'anic verse carries the meaning of scientific research to reach the truth, and Allah will lead anyone to the truth, if he chooses to seek it. Go through the history of Islam and refer the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah, through which you will be able to find out the truth.
"This day have I perfected for you, your religion, and have completed My favour on you, and chosen for you ISLAM (to be) the religion." (Qur'an 5:3)
Ahmad bin Hanbal, the founder of Hanbali school of thought, writes in his Musnad that a Jew told the second caliph: "If there were a similar declaration in the Pentateuch, the Jews would have celebrated the day as a great festival.")
The date of this incident was the 18th of Zil-Hijjah of the year 10 AH (10 March 632 AD). After completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada'), Prophet (S) was leaving Makkah and going towards Madinah, where he and the crowd of people reached a place called Ghadeer-e -Khum (which is close to today's al-Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces used to greet each other before taking different routes for their homes. In this place, the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed: "O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people" (Qur'an 5:67). The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet (S) was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from the people.
Upon receiving this verse, the Prophet (S) stopped at that place (Khum) which was extremely hot. Then he sent for all people who have been ahead in the way, to come back and waited until all pilgrims who fell behind, arrived and gathered. He ordered Salman [r.a.] to use rocks and camel tooling to make a mimber (pulpit) so he could make his announcement. It was around noontime in the first of the fall, and due to the extreme heat in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their feet and legs, and were sitting around the pulpit, on the hot sand.
On this day the Messenger of Allah (S) spent approximately five hours in this place; three hours of which he was on the pulpit. He recited nearly one hundred verses from the Glorious Qur'an, and for seventy three times reminded and warned people of their deeds and the future. Then he gave them a long speech. The following is a part of his speech, Tradition of the Two Weighty Things (Thaqalain).
The Messenger of Allah declared: "It seems the time has approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to both of them firmly; you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my Progeny that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Kawthar in Paradise)."
Then the Messenger of Allah continued: "Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?" People cried and answered: "Yes, O' Messenger of God." Then followed the key sentence denoting the clear designation of 'Ali as the leader of the Muslim Ummah. The Prophet (S) held up the hand of 'Ali and said: "For whomever I am a Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)." The Prophet continued: "O' God, love those who love him (Ali), and be hostile to those who are hostile to him (Ali).
Hafiz Abu Ja'far Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari (d.310 A.H.) writes in his Kitabu'l-Wilaya that the Prophet (S) said in the beginning of his renowned address at Ghadeer-e-Khum: "The angel Gabriel has conveyed Allah's command to me that I stop at this place and inform the people that Ali Bin Abi Talib is my brother, my successor, my Caliph (Vicegerent) after me. O men! Allah has made Ali your Wali (guardian), and Imam (guide). Obedience to him is obligatory on each and everyone of you; his command is supreme; his utterance is truth; curse be on him who opposes him; Allah's mercy be on him who befriends him."
Immediately after the Prophet (S) finished his speech, the following verse of the Qur'an was revealed: "This day have I perfected for you, your religion, and have completed My favour on you, and chosen for you ISLAM (to be) the religion." (Qur'an 5:3) The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet [s] was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of the Prophet's immediate successor.
Oath of Allegiance: After his speech, the Messenger of Allah asked everybody to give the oath of allegiance to 'Ali [a] and congratulate him. Among those who did so was 'Umar bin Khattab, who said: "Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the Leader (mawla) of all believing men and women."
Some of our Sunni commentators further report that the first three verses of the chapter of al-Ma'arij (70:1-3) were revealed when a dispute arose after the Prophet (S) reached Madinah. It is recorded that: On the day of Ghadeer the Messenger of Allah summoned the people towards 'Ali and said: "Ali is the mawla of whoever I am mawla." The news spread quickly all over urban and rural areas. When Harith Ibn Nu'man al-Fahri came to know of it, he rode his camel and came to Madinah and went to the Messenger of Allah (S) and said to him: "You commanded us to testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the prayers five times a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe fasts during the month of Ramadhan and we obeyed. Then you commanded us to offer pilgrimage to Makkah and we obeyed. But you are not satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin by your hand and imposed him upon us as our master by saying `Ali is the mawla of whoever I am the mawla.' Is this imposition from Allah or from you?"
The Prophet (S) said: "By Allah who is the only deity! This is from Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious." On hearing this Harith turned back and proceeded towards his she-camel saying: "O Allah! If what Muhammad (S) said is correct then fling on us a stone from the sky and subject us to severe pain and torture." He had not reached his she-camel when Allah, Who is above all defects, flung at him a stone that struck him on his head, penetrated his body and passed out through his lower body and left him dead. It was on this occasion that Allah, the exalted, caused to descend the following verses: "A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the Lord of the Ascent." (70:1-2-3)
Our Sunni Ulema have quoted many tradition of the Holy Prophet (S) regarding the appointment of Hazrat Ali as a Wali, Wasi, Master, Caliph, Imam, Successor, Friend, Helper and Guide. And it is with the authority of Allah to appoint the leader for the believers to guide; we have no authority to select. As Allah says in the Holy Qur'an: "And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a Caliph...." [Surah-2: Ayat-30]
...And Musa said to his brother Haroon: Take my place among my people... [Surah-7: Ayat-142]. As Prophet Musa appointed Prophet Haroon, in the same way Prophet Muhammad (S) appointed Hazrat Ali (a.s.) as a Wali, Wasi, Successor, Caliph, Imam and Master of the believers by the command of Allah.
  1. The Prophet (S) said: "O Ali, you are the bearer of my knowledge, my Wali and friend, my successor, the heir of my knowledge, and my Caliph. You are the trustee of the heritage of all the preceding prophets. You are the confidant of Allah on this earth and Allah's proof for the whole of creation. You are a pillar of Iman (faith) and the guardian of Islam. You are a lamp in darkness, a light of guidance, and for the people of the world you are a raised standard. O Ali! He who follows you is delivered; he who disobeys you will perish; you are the luminous way, and a straight path; you are the leader of pure men, and the head of the believers; to whomsoever I am Master (Maula), you are also his Master (Maula), and I am the Master of every believer (man or woman). Only he is your friend who is born of lawful wedlock. Allah did not transport me to the heavens to speak with me without telling me, 'O Muhammad (S)! Convey my salutation to Ali and tell him that he is the Imam of my friends and the Light of worshippers.' Congratulations to you, O Ali, on this marvellous excellence".
(Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Manaqib of Ahmad, from Ibn Abbas)
2) The Prophet (S) said: "When I reached Sidratu'l-Muntaha (the highest station during the Mi'raj), I was addressed thus: 'O Muhammad (S)! When you tested the people, whom did you find the most obedient?' I said 'Ali.' Allah then said, 'You have told the truth, Muhammad (S)!' Further, He said, 'Have you selected a Vicegerent who will convey your knowledge to the people, and teach My servants from My Book those things which they do not know?' I said, 'O Allah! Whomever you select, I will select.' He said, 'I have selected Ali for you. I make him your Vicegerent and successor.' And He furnished Ali with His knowledge and forbearance. He is the Commander of the Faithful whom no one can equal in rank among his predecessors or successors."
(Abu Mu'ayyid Muwafiqu'd-Din, in his Faza'il of the Commander of the Faithful, Printed in 1313 A.H., Chapter XIX, page 240)
3) The Prophet (S) said: "Ali is the chief of the successors. To follow him is a blessing; to die in obedience to him is martyrdom. His name appears in the Torah along with my name; his wife, the most truthful, is my daughter; his two sons, who are the chiefs of the Youth of Paradise, are my sons. After them all the Imams are vicegerents of Allah over His creation after the prophets; and they are the doors of knowledge among my people. He who follows them is rescued from Hellfire; he who follows them is guided to the right path; he who is endowed by Allah with love for them will surely be sent to Paradise. So, enlightened people, take heed."
Ibn Hajar Makki in his Sawa'iqul Muhriqa, Chapter 2, Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda chapter 12)
4) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrates from Ibn Abbas, who said that he, Abu Bakr, Abu Ubaida Bin Jarra, and others were with the Prophet (S) when he put his hand on Ali's shoulder and said: "You are foremost in faith in Islam among all the Muslims, and you are to me as Aaron was to Moses, O Ali! he who thinks he is my friend while he is your enemy is a liar."
5) The Prophet (S) as said, "Those who took the lead in accepting faith in the oneness of Allah among the followers of the Prophets were three people who were never polytheists: Ali Bin Abu Talib, the man in the Sura Ya Seen, and the believer of the people of Pharaoh. The Truthful Ones are Habib-e-Najjar, among the descendants of Ya Sin, Ezekiel among the descendants of Pharaoh, and Ali Bin Abu Talib, who excelled all of them."
(Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i in his Kifayatu't-Talib, Chapter 24)
6) Abu Ja'far Iskafi, the chief of the Mu'tazilite school of thought, declared that his master Abu Abdullah Basri, Sheikh Abu'l-Qasim Balkhi, and Sheikh Abu'l-Hasan Khayyat, Bashr Bin Mu'tamar, Abu Musa, Ja'far Bin Mubashshir, and other Sunni ulema believed that, "The most excellent person among all Muslims was Ali Bin Abu Talib, and after him his sons Hasan and Husain, after him Hamza, and after him Ja'far Bin Abi Talib." "The best of the men after the Prophet of Allah, is the successor of the Prophet, the husband of Fatima, Ali; after him, his two sons, Hasan and Husain; after them, Hamza, and after him Ja'far (Tayyar).
(Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharh Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume 111, page 40)
7) The Prophet (S) said: "If one wishes to look at Adam, Noah, and Abraham, look at Ali." He says that Ali is the one Allah refers to in the Holy Qur'an, "And those who are with him are strong against the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves." (48:29).
(Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi' in his Kifayatu't-Talib, Chapter 13)
8) To be with the Holy Prophet (S), to be vehement against the unbelievers on the battlefield and in learned discourses, to be compassionate to friends and foes - all these qualities refer to one who never left the Prophet (S) or even thought of leaving him. That person is Ali Bin Abu Talib.
(Muhammad Bin Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i has written in his Kifayatu't-Talib that in this verse Allah praised Ali, Tabari, in his Ta'rikh, Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Sulayman Balkhi in Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, Chapter 51, Mas'udi in Muruju'dh-Dhahaba)
9) The Holy Prophet (S) said at 'Arafa: "Ali is from me and I am from Ali. Nobody recompenses me (that is no one discharges the duty of my mission) except me and Ali."
(Ibn Maja in his Sunan, Part I, p. 92; Tirmidhi in his Sahih; Ibn Hajar in Tradition v of Forty Traditions narrated in the Sawa'iq from Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal, Imam Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Nisa'i, Ibn Maja; Imam Ahmad Bin Hanbal in Musnad, v.4, p.164; Muhammad Ibn Yusuf Ganji Shafi'i in chapter 67 of Kifayatu't-Talib from the Musnad of Ibn Samak, v. 4, the Mu'jim Kabir of Tibrani; Imam Abu Abdu'r-Rahman Nisa'i in Khasa'is, and Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in Yanbiu'l-Mawaddat from the Mishkat)
10) The Holy Prophet (S) said "Ali is from me and I am from Ali. Ali is to me as the head is to the body; one who obeys him, obeys me; and one who obeys me, obeys Allah."
(Hamidi in his Jam' Bainu's-Sahihain and Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharhe-Nahju'l-Balagha)
11) The Holy Prophet (S) said: "Verily, Almighty Allah helped this faith of Islam through Ali, since he is from me, and I am from him, and this holy verse was revealed for him - 'Is he then like him who has a clear proof from his Lord and follows a witness (like Ali) from Him?'" (11:17)
(Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari in his Tafsir and Mir Seyyed Ali Hamdani, the Shafi'i theologian, in Muwadda viii of Muwaddatu'l-Qurba)
12) The Holy Prophet (S) said, "Ali is from me and I am from Ali." "Ali is to me as my self is to me, obedience to him is obedience to me," or "Fighting against Ali is fighting against Allah, and peace with Ali is peace with Allah," or "A friend of Ali is a friend of Allah, and Ali's enemy is Allah's enemy," or "Ali is Allah's Hujjat (proof) over His servants," or "Love for Ali is faith and enmity against him is infidelity," or "Ali's party is the party of Allah, and the party of his enemies is the party of Satan," or "Ali is with the Truth and the Truth is with me, they are inseparable," or "Ali is the distributor of Paradise and Hell," or "One who remained aloof from Ali remained aloof from me, and one who remained aloof from me remained aloof from Allah," or "The partisans of Ali will be rescued on the Day of Judgement." "I swear by Allah, Who bestowed Prophethood upon me and made me the choicest of His creations: O Ali! Verily you are Allah's Hujjat (proof) for the people, His trustee, knower of His secrets, and His Caliph over His servants."
(Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in the 7th chapter of his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda)

As I am sending you this mail and I also request you to forward this mail because it was the will of Holy Prophet (S) that this message should be conveyed to each and every Muslim and also Prophet (s.) had said, "If Allah chooses you to guide one man (to the right path), then that is worth more than all the riches on earth." Therefore, research and comparison are legal obligations for every responsible person. Surely Allah does not do any injustice to men, but men are unjust to themselves" (Holy Qur'an 10:44).

Essay on Ghadeer-e-Khumm
At the very outset we are but faced with a stark reality. We are compelled to ask ourselves two questions. What status did Islam want the Muslims to achieve? What status have the Muslims actually achieved? The answer to the first question is comparatively much easy to digest. Three times does the Holy Quran repeats: "He it is who sent His apostle with guidance and the religion of truth, that he might cause it to prevail over all religions..."(9:33, 48:28, 61:9). Also the Holy Quran enunciates: "Surely the land is Allah’s; He causes such of His servants to inherit it as He pleases " (7:128) But the answer to the second question hits the belly - and indeed hits it hard. Today’s Muslim does not stand anywhere near victory. Success reaches every house but somehow manages to escape the thresholds of Muslims. The parable of the Muslim is that of a football. Being kicked from one end to another. Some do kick to get material benefits. Majority are the people who seek pure entertainment by being the spectators and at times the cheerleaders. This reality slaps, smack, on our faces.
The somberness of this fact burns our hearts. It persuades us to do the much-needed research in order to comprehend the underlying fundamentals to this stark variation - What the Quran explicitly mentions to what we observe in the socio-political transnational personality of the contemporary Muslim. In this research to pursue the reality we must promise ourselves to uphold and follow the genuine research 'wherever it leads to'. Pursuit for truth without the sincere intent and the firm resolve has no meaning. Before we venture out in the realm of sincere research and quest for truth we take caution and endeavor to improve our resolve with these words " There are few nudities so objectionable as the naked truth - Agnes Repplier. Further we sincerely pray that we take our faith seriously and not to be included in those who have been mentioned with the words " He wears his faith but as the fashion of his hat - William Shakespeare. We take courage in these words " All truths are easy to understand once they are discovered; the point is to discover them - Galileo Galilei (1564 - 1642). And also " Truth is generally the best vindication against slander - Abraham Lincoln.
Let us first analyze where did the Muslims go wrong in their vast history presently spread over more than 14 centuries. Where did the first falsehood creep into the history of the Muslims? We will not leave any stone unturned and any page unread to locate this falsehood and ultimately eliminate it. There are two ways to this analysis. One is we initiate from the contemporary to the life of the Holy Prophet( S.A.W.). Second is we initiate from the life of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) to the contemporary. We know that if there is a falsehood in the past then it multiplies with time, therefore, we take the second option, starting from the life of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) to the present. It would have been an increasingly ardous affair to analyze the complex form of the falsehood in the recent times without analyzing the comparatively bare and raw form of the falsehood in the previous times. When we mention ' bare form of the falsehood ' we definitely have taken great pains in comprehending what a 'falsehood' means and implies. This indicates that there do exists different forms of falsehood. There are 2 kinds of falsehoods. One is in its bare status, which is in its nascent elementary form, and the other is the falsehood garbed with truth that is the complicated form. The Holy Quran says: " Do not mix the truth with the falsehood "(2:42). In this verse the Holy Quran exhorts the people not to mix truth and falsehood together. Simply speaking, the Holy Quran could have asked us to leave falsehood. But it is needless to mention here that the Holy Quran wants to specify here the second form of falsehood that is exceedingly dangerous than simple elementary form of falsehood. This falsehood is the complex form of falsehood that is mixed with truth and is perceived as truth at the outset. Only when a person ponders over the reality of this he comes to understand that it is in reality a falsehood and not truth. But the more simple minded people and those who do not ponder a lot get hooked and start considering this falsehood as being the real form of truth. These people start believing this complex form of falsehood as the truth in such a way that they are more than willing to even sacrifice their lives for this complex falsehood, of course, under the impression that this is truth by itself. But even for such people it can rightly be said " Men occasionally stumble over the truth, but most of them pick themselves up and hurry off as if nothing ever happened " - Winston Churchill. There is another group of people who are impure at heart. They are quite aware about this complex falsehood and comprehend that this is falsehood but chooses to stick by this falsehood rather than the truth. " I believe in looking at reality straight in the eye and denying it " - Garrison Keillor.
Beginning from the life of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.), firstly, we are sure that nothing went wrong in the time when the Holy Prophet ( S.A.W.) was alive. Since we know very well that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was at the helm of the affairs of the Muslims and no mistakes could be attributed to the Holy Prophet( S.A.W.). It is sufficient to say that at least no Muslim believes that the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) committed any mistake that ultimately has caused such tragic oppressions of the Muslims. Also, the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) has received a certificate from Allah (S.W.T.) that he will not err in the affairs of the Muslims in the following verses of the Holy Quran: " Your companion does not err, nor does he go astray; Nor does he speak out of desire. It is naught but a revelation that is revealed " ( 53: 2,3, & 4). Also the Holy Quran certifies all his actions by asking everyone to follow each and every action of his without any exception, this verse has been repeated tens of times in the Holy Quran: " Obey Allah and obey the Prophet " ( 3:32, 3:132, 4:59, 8:1, 8:20, 8:46). Our journey for seeking truth has started from the life of the Holy Prophet and is supposed to ultimately terminate at the contemporary. So the next stage which should not miss our stringent perusal is the period immediately after the passing away of the Holy Prophet ( S.A.W.).
Immediately after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) we envisage heavy differences taking place amongst the Muslims. We can proffer more than 40,000 instances displaying the terrible differences that had occurred after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). But since the scope of this document is highly limited, just to indicate the extent of differences taking place after the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) it is sufficient to enunciate the following 12 points:
1. Abu Ja'far Baladhuri Ahmad Bin Yahya Bin Jabir Baghdadi, one of reliable traditionalists and historians according to the sunnis, writes in his History that when Abu Bakr called Ali to swear allegiance, Ali refused. Abu Bakr sent Umar who went with a torch to set fire to Ali's house. Fatima came to the door and said: "O son of Khattab! Have you come to set my house on fire?" He said: "Yes, this is more effective than anything your father did."
2. Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume III, page 351. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid wrote that he told his teacher, Abu Ja'far Naqib, that when the Prophet was told that Hubbar Bin Aswad had attacked his daughter Zainab's litter with a lance, because of which Zainab suffered a miscarriage, the Prophet allowed him to be put to death. Abu Ja'far said: "Had the Prophet of Allah been alive, he would have surely ordered the death penalty for him also who had frightened Fatima so much that her child, Muhsin, died in miscarriage."
3. Hazrat Hussein (A.S.) the grandson of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was martyred along with his family members.
4. When Abdullah learned that, like other copies of the Holy Quran, his copy had been burnt, he was much aggrieved. In social and religious gatherings, he narrated the condemnatory hadith that he knew about Uthman. When this news reached Uthman, he had Ibn Mas'ud so severely beaten by his slaves that his teeth were broken, and he was confined to bed. After three days he succumbed to his injuries. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid writes in detail about these facts in Volume I, pages 67 and 226 of Sharh Nahju'l-Balagha (printed in Egypt) under "Ta'n VI.
5. Ulema of both sects relate that when Umayyad oppression increased, some companions of the Prophet wrote to Uthman, asking him to relent. They said that if he continued to assist his cruel Umayyad Governors, he would not only be harming Islam, but he would himself be subjected to serious consequences. They asked Ammar Yasir to deliver the petition since Uthman himself had acknowledged Ammar's virtue. They had often heard Uthman say that the Prophet said that faith was blended with the flesh and blood of Ammar. So Ammar took the letter to Uthman. When he arrived, Uthman asked him, "Do you have business with me?" He replied: "I have no business of a personal nature. But a group of the Prophet's Companions have written in this letter some suggestions and advice for your welfare. They have sent them to you through me." After reading a few lines, Uthman threw the letter down. Ammar said: "It was not good of you. A letter from the companions of the Holy Prophet of Allah deserves respect. Why did you throw it on the ground? It would be proper for you to have read it and replied to it?" "You are lying!" Uthman shouted. Then he ordered his slaves to beat him, and Uthman himself kicked him in the stomach.
6. Uthman was also cruel to Jandab Bin Junada, known as Abu Dharr Ghifari, one of the intimate companions of the Holy Prophet and a learned man. Great traditionalists and historians of both sects have reported that this ninety-year-old man was unjustly exiled from place to place with utmost ignominy - from Medina to Syria, to Medina again, and then from Medina to the desert of Rabza. He rode on a naked camel accompanied by his only daughter. He died in Rabza in penury and neglect. Sunni prominent ulema and historians, including, Ibn Sa'd, in his Tabaqat, Volume IV, page 168; Bukhari in Sahih, Kitab-e-Zakat; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in his Sharhe Nahju'l-Balagha, Volume I, page 240 and Volume II, pages 375-87, Yaqubi in his History, Volume II, page 148; Abu'l-Hasan Ali Bin Husain Mas'udi, the famous traditionalist and historian of the fourth century in his Muruju'dh-Dhahab, Volume I, page 438, and many others have recorded Uthman's cruelty. It has been widely reported how he mistreated the pure-hearted Abu Dharr, the loved one of the Holy Prophet, and also how Abdullah Bin Mas'ud, the hafiz and recorder of Wahi, who was given forty lashes because he bid farewell to Abu Dharr Ghifari. Insulting treatment was likewise shown to Ali for the same reason.
7. The wife of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) came out to fight against the Holy Imam Ali (A.S.).
8. Ayesha went to Basra. Uthman Bin Hanafi, a great companion of the Prophet and governor of Basra appointed by Ali, was captured there. His hair and beard were pulled out; he was tortured and driven out. More than 100 innocent, helpless Muslims were killed. Ibn Athir, Mas'udi, Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari, Ibn Abi'l-Hadid, and others have written in detail about this event.
9. Abu'l-Faraj Ispahani in his Maqatilu't-Talibin, Ibn Abdu'l-Bar in his Isti'ab, Mas'udi in his Isbatu'l-Wasiyya, and many other ulema have reported that Asma Ju'da, by order and promise of Mu'awiya, gave poison to Abu Muhammad Hasan Ibn Ali. Ibn Abdu'l-Bar and Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari have also reported that when Mu'awiya was informed of the passing away of the holy imam, he shouted the takbir ("Allah is Great").
10. When Amr Bin As and Mu'awiya Bin Khadij conquered Egypt, the supply of water was cut off to Muhammad Bin Abu Bakr. When he had nearly died of thirst, he was killed. He was then enclosed in the skin of an ass and the bundle was thrown into a fire. When Mu'awiya learned of this, he was very pleased.
11. Sunni eminent ulema and historians, including Yusuf Sibt Ibn Jauzi in his Tadhkira Khawasu'l-Umma, p.122; Allama Mas'udi, author of Muruju'z-Dhahab, in Isbatu'l-Wasiyya, p.136; Ibn Abi'l-Hadid in Sharh-e-Nahju'l-Balagha, vol. IV, p.18, reporting from Abu'l-Faraj and Yahya Bin Hasan, author of Kitabu'n-Nasab; Muhammad Khwawind Shah in his Rauzatu's-Safa, and many others have written that when the corpse of Imam Hasan was being transported to Medina, A'yesha, mounted on a mule and accompanied by a group of the Bani Umayya and their slaves, stopped the group with Imam Hasan's body. They said that they would not let Imam Hasan be buried by the side of the Holy Prophet. According to the report of Mas'udi, Ibn Abbas said: "It is strange of you, A'yesha! Was not the Day of Jamal, that is, your entering the battlefield mounted on a camel, sufficient for you? Now should the people also keep in memory the Day of Baghl (mule)?
12. Differences in the four schools of thought namely shaafei, Maaliki, Hanmbali and hanafi, which came in after the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) had been so intense that they used to go to the extent of calling each other infidels.
The above indisputably shows that there did exist tremendous differences and an increasingly pathetic state of affairs of the Muslims right after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). It will be absolutely wrong to endeavor and find out the roots to the causes of the plight of the contemporary Muslim without actually finding out the roots to the pathetic status of the Muslims immediately after the Holy Prophet ( S.A.W.). It is eventually the pathetic status of the Muslims immediately after the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) which has been inherited by the present day Muslim. But the big question is - How, in this seemingly confusing situation, do we find the truth? How do we analyze the events taking shape after the passing away of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.)? The Ahle sunnat people come up with a theory of Ijma. They boldly mention that inspite of the differences amongst the Muslims, the Muslims were all very much united on one platform. Yes, it is like saying that the pant has 40,000 holes in it but still it is perfect - You can wear it! What kind of gymnastics of words is this? If the Muslims had more than 40,000 deep-rooted differences of which the above 12 are glaring evidences then it means they had differences - as simple as this. They were NOT united on any one aspect. Let us not beat behind the bushes. Let us not follow the words " If the facts don't fit the theory, change the facts - Albert Einstein (1879 - 1955) (attributed). Indeed if the theory does not fit the facts we need to change the theory. If we ponder on this and sincerely endeavor to seek the truth we will understand that these kinds of disturbances were not exclusive to the Muslim society. Any community at that which has so many resources under it and has huge power will get involved in this kind of strife if the previous leader does not designate one single leader. If the previous leader leaves the community without designating his heir for the community and the community has such resources it can very easily be predicted that enormous strife and disturbances will follow in the community. Hence this ultimately devolves on the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). If the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) had to avoid disturbances after him then he had to appoint his heir. There was absolutely no chance that the Muslim ummat would have remained safe from disturbances and internal strife if there was no ONE SINGLE person appointed as the Holy Prophets (S.A.W.)'s heir and appointed before the passing away of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.). If a person says that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) did not appoint anyone as his heir throughout his lifetime then he is most certainly attributing an error, short sightedness and a shortcoming on the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) – may Allah (S.W.T.) protect everyone from such an assumption. Hence, after all the pains we have taken we have at least understood the following:
1. Plight of the present day Muslims are not related purely to the present day problems but are inherited from the past that is ultimately inherited from the problems faced by Muslims immediately after the passing away of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).
2. The problems of the Muslims immediately after the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was because they were not united under one single banner of TRUTH.
3. The Muslims after the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) were not united under one banner of truth because the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) did not identify this banner of truth by not appointing his heir. Thus the root cause of all the problems faced by the Muslims throughout so many centuries is the error of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) - May Allah (S.W.T.) protect us from such wild and false imaginations. The other possibility is that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) did appoint his heir and vicegerent but the majority of the Muslims disregarded it. Thus all the problems faced by the Muslims throughout so many centuries whether it be spiritual or material has to be attributed to this disregard.
If it is true that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) did appoint an heir and vicegerent after him but the majority of the Muslims disregarded it then we should do our utmost to find this appointment by the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Let us utilize all the latest tools available to mankind to scan and find out the moment in the life of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) when he appointed his heir and vicegerent. If we study the life of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) we will find out that we do not require any tools ( no microscopes please) to locate where and how did the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) appoint his heir. In fact his life is full of small and big incidences wherein he has announced his heir. He has not hidden these events anywhere and has not made this appointment ambiguous. These kinds of repeated announcement by the holy Prophet (S.A.W.) of his heir is abundant in his life time and is clearly put up. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) was far too merciful to have possibly concealed the appointment. The Holy Quran says: " Certainly an apostle has come to you from among yourselves; grievous to him is your falling into distress, excessively solicitous respecting you; to the believers (he is) compassionate, merciful." (9:128).
Amongst all the small and big instances wherein the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) has mentioned the appointment of his heir, the event of Ghadir is the biggest occasion. After completion of the last pilgrimage of the Holy Prophet ( S.A.W.) he collected all the Muslims possibly available at a place called Ghadir-e-khumm and then vehemently announced the appointment of Ali(A.S.) as his heir and vicegerent in no uncertain terms. Since whatever we have discussed till now is focussed on this event of Ghadir, we need to elaborate this event in a greater detail.
Ghadir literary means small lake or pond (Ref. Al-Munjid). Ghadir is the name of a place that comes on the way from Makkah to Medina. It is 3 miles further than Johfa towards Medina. There existed a small pond at this place. Though geographically it exists on the way to Medina but this place acted as an exit point for all the people going out from Makkah for all the other places. When the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) halted at this place after his last pilgrimage to make his all-significant announcement it was extremely hot at that time and it was close to mid-day. It was a wayside tract of barren land. There was no shelter present over there at that time. In fact there existed merely small minor patches of shades provided by a few acacia trees.
The date is 18th Zilhajjah of the year 10 A.H. (10 March 632 CE)
The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) asked his companions to call the Muslims in general to attend for a pilgrimage to the Holy Kaaba. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) specified that he himself would also be there to attend for the pilgrimage and teach the Muslims the rituals of the pilgrimage and convey his significant messages directly to all. The call for the pilgrimage was made. On his way to Makkah more than 70,000 Muslims joined him. By the fourth of Zilhajjah more than 100,000 Muslims had collected for the Haj with the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.).
After completing the last pilgrimage the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) along with the Muslims set out of Makkah. On their way back the Muslims reached a place called Ghadir-e-khumm. The following verse was revealed to the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.): " O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don't do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people ..." (Quran 5:67)
Delivery of the sermon:
On receiving the above verse, the Holy Prophet stopped at that very place called Ghadir-e-khumm. He ordered his companions to call back those of the Muslims who had gone ahead. He waited for those Muslims who had remained behind to join them. He ordered Salman (A.R.) to prepare for a pulpit with the help of rocks and camel toolings. It was prime noontime and Muslims had tied their heads and legs on account of the heat. Muslims had started to sit near the temporary pulpit. The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) was at this place for about 5 hours. He recited nearly 100 verses of the Holy Quran most of which were in the praise of Ali(A.S.). Seventy three times he reminded and admonished the Muslims about the their deeds and future.
The following is a part of the lengthy speech of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) which has also been narrated by the sunni authorities repeatedly:
"It seems the time has approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere to them both, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my Progeny, that is my Ahlul Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)." Then the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) in an attempt to remind Muslims of his own authority over them said: " Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves? " Muslims answered unanimously " Yes, O' Messenger of God ". This served as a stepping stone for the announcement of his hier and vicegerent. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) held out the hand of Ali(A.S.) and said: " For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla)." The Holy Prophet then continued to say: " O' God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."
Once the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) completed his speech this verse of the Holy Quran was revealed to him: " Today I have perfected your religion and completed my favour upon you, and I am satisfied that Islam be your religion." (5:3). This verse explicitly mentions that only along with this express announcement of the vicegerancy by the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) can the religion of Islam be considered as complete and perfect. Without this announcement or because of the disregard of this announcement the religion of Islam will be merely half truth. As indicated earlier many a times half truths are more dangerous than full falsehoods. No doubt if the Muslims disregard this announcement they will have to endure oppression and hardship both materially and spiritually.
Immediately after completion of the sermon Hassan Bin Thabit sought the permission of the Holy Prophet to convey to the audience his poetry which he had instantaneously composed regarding this event of ghadir. The Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) told him " Say with the blessings of Allah ". He then conveyed the following verses of his poetry to the audience:
" He calls them, (on) the day of Ghadir, their Prophet
In Khumm so hear (and heed) the Messenger's call,
He said: "Who is your guide and leader? (mawlakum wa waliyyukum)"
They said, and there was no apparent blindness (clearly):
"Your God, our guide, and you are our leader
And you won't find from among us, in this, any disobedient,"
He said to him: "Stand up O' Ali, for I am
pleased to announce you Imam and guide after me (min ba'di imam(an) wa hadiy(an)),
So whomever I was his leader (mawla), then this is his leader (mawla)
So be to him supporters in truth and followers,"
The Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) keeping to his long term merciful nature towards the Muslims did not get content only on this announcement. He wanted this announcement to take the shape of appropriate action from the side of the Muslims. In lieu of this the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) ordered the Muslims to meet Ali(A.S.) and give oath of allegiance to him. Umar Bin AL-Khattab came first to Ali(A.S.), gave oath of allegiance to Ali(A.S.) and said "Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the Leader (mawla) of all believing men and women." After Umar was Abu Bakr, Uthman, Talha and then others. The entire process of giving allegiance to Ali(A.S.) by the then present 120,000 people took 3 days.
The news about the above announcement and the subsequent allegiance of oath given by the Muslims to Ali(A.S.) spread across both the urban and rural areas. This event was so significant that it touched the Muslims all across the globe. In this process Harith Ibn Nu'man al-Fahri (or Nadhr Ibn Harith according to another tradition)came to know about this. He hurriedly came to Madinah and started disputing with the Holy Peophet(S.A.W.) on the issue of appointment of Ali(A.S.) as the vicegerant. He told the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.)"You commanded us to testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the prayers five times a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe fasts during the month of Ramadhan and we obeyed. Then you commanded us to offer pilgrimage to Makkah and we obeyed. But you are not satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin by your hand and imposed him upon us as our master by saying `Ali is the mawla of whom I am mawla.' Is this imposition from Allah or from you?"
The Prophet (S.A.W.) said : "By Allah who is the only deity! This is from Allah, the Mighty and the Glorious." On hearing this while going back to his she camel Harith said " O Allah! If what Muhammad said is correct then fling on us a stone from the sky and subject us to severe pain and torture." He had not even reached his she camel that Allah(S.W.T.) flung a stone on him which struck him on his head and penetrated his entire body and he was instantaneously left dead. At this the following verse was revealed "A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the Lord of the Ascent." (70:1-3).
We have mentioned above the entire episode of the Ghadir. But unfortunately even after knowing and understanding the entire truth we see heads move in rejecting the truth. There are basically 3 excuses which the opponents offer. Though these excuses are self-evident to be no more than futile excuses but we will deal with them in detail so that the opponents are left with no shelter place.
1. The tradition of Ghadir is not reliable and authentic.
2. The word Maula used in the tradition does not imply master but it means friend. Hence the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.)actually announced about the friendship of Ali (A.S.) on the day of Ghadir and not about mastership of Ali (A.S.).
3. It does not appeal to our common sense that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) appointed Ali (A.S.) as his successor in clear terms and still the companions of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) disobeyed him and after his death appointed a vicegerent by themselves.
We will deal with each one of the above excuses separately and in such details as to dispel all doubts and lay bare the mischief of the mischief-makers.
A. Sunni references for the verse 5:67 revealed in relation and just before the tradition of Ghadir. Though there are atleast 69 chains of transmitters present for this from Sunni sources but due to lack of space we will mention only 9 books:
1. Yanabi` al-mawaddah - Khwajah Kalan, Sulayman b. Ibrahim, al-Husayni al-Balkhi al-Qunduzi al-Hanafi.
2. al-'Arba`in fi fada'il Amir al-Mu'minin - Jamal al-Din `Ata' Allah b. Fadl Allah, al-Husayni al-Shirazi.
3. Al-Durr al-Manthur - al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din `Abd al-Rahman b. Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr, al-Shafi`i.
4. Tafsir Kashf wa'l-bayan - Al-Tha`labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Abu Ishaq al-Nisaburi.
5. Asbab al-Nuzul - al-Wahidi, Abu al-Hasan `Ali b. Ahmad b. Muhammad b. `Ali b. Mattawayh, al-Naysaburi.
6. al-Dirayah fi Hadith al-Wilayah (Kitab al-wilayah) - Mas`ud b. Nasir b. `Abd Allah b. Ahmad, Abu Sa`id al-Sijzi (al-Sijistani).
7. Shawahid al-tanzil - Ibn Haddad al-Haskani, `Ubayd Allah b. `Abd Allah, Abu al-Qasim al-Hakim al-Nisaburi al-Hanafi.
8. Mafatih al-Ghayb (Tafsir al-kabir) - Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Muhammad b. `Umar b. al-Hasan, Abu `Abd Allah al-Shafi`i.
9. Matalib al-sa'ul fi manaqib Al al-Rasul - Muhammad b. Talhah, Abu Salim al-Qarashi al-Nasibi al-Shafi`i.
B. Sunni references regarding the tradition of Ghadir. Here it is more than sufficient to mention that Allama Amini has mentioned this tradition from 110 companions of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and 84 second generation (Ta'biun) and 360 sunni ulema. In fact at other places another 200 sunni ulema references are given which takes the number of sunni ulema to have related the tradition of Ghadir to atleast 560! Because of lack of space again here we will mention only 9 references from sunni sources who have related the tradition of Ghadir and that too have specifically mentioned the words of "For whoever I am his Leader (mawla), 'Ali is his Leader (mawla).":
1. Al-Bidayah wa'l-Nihayah fi al-Ta'rikh - Ibn Kathir, `Imad al-Din Isma`il b. `Umar b. Kathir b. Daw', al-Qarashi al-Dimashqi.
2. Manaqib `Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal b. Hilal b. Asad, Abu `Abd Allah al-Shaybani al-Marwazi.
3. Al-Musnad - Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal b. Hilal b. Asad, Abu `Abd Allah al-Shaybani al-Marwazi.
4. Kanz al-`ummal fi sunan al-aqwal wa'l af`al - Nur al-Din `Ali b. `Abd al-Malik Husam al-Din al-Muttaqi al-Hindi.
5. Sunan - Ibn Majah, Muhammad b. Yazid, Abu `Abd Allah al-Qazwini.
6. Al-Musannaf - Ibn Abi Shaybah, `Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. `Uthman, Abu Bakr al-`Absi al-Kufi.
7. al-'Iktifa fi fadl al-'arba`ah al-khulafa' - Ibrahim b. `Abd Allah, al-Wassabi al-Yamani al-Shafi`i.
8. Al-Khasa'is fi fadl `Ali b. Abi Talib - al-Nasa'i, Ahmad b. Shu`ayb b. `Ali b. Sinan b. Bahr, Abu `Abd al-Rahman al-Khurasani al-Nasa'i.
9. Miftah al-naja fi manaqib Al al-`aba - Mirza Muhammad b. Mu`tamad Khan al-Harithi al-Badakhshi (al-Badakhshani).
C. Sunni references about the verse 5:3 being revealed immediately after the sermon of Ghadir. Again here we can provide atleast 35 chains of transmitters but due to lack of space we will mention only 9 sunni books to confirm:
1. Manaqib `Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn al-Maghazili, `Ali b. Muhammad, Abu al-Hasan al-Tayyib al-Jullabi al-Shafi`i.
2. Miftah al-naja fi manaqib Al al-`aba - Mirza Muhammad b. Mu`tamad Khan al-Harithi al-Badakhshi (al-Badakhshani).
3. Ma nazala min al-Qur'an fi `Ali - Abu Nu`aym, Ahmad b. `Abd Allah, al-'Isfahani.
4. Manaqib `Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn al-Maghazili, `Ali b. Muhammad, Abu al-Hasan al-Tayyib al-Jullabi al-Shafi`i.
5. al-Khasa'is al-`Alawiyyah - Muhammad b. `Ali b. Ibrahim, Abu al-Fath al-Natanzi.
6. Kitab al-Manaqib - Khatib al-Khawarazmi, Muwaffaq b. Ahmad, Abu al-Mu'ayyad al-Makki, known as Akhtab al-Muwaffaq.
7. Al-Durr al-Manthur - al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din `Abd al-Rahman b. Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr, al-Shafi`i.
8. Fara'id al-samtayn fi fada'il al-Murtada wa al-batul wa al-sibtayn - al-Juwayni, Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. al-Mu'ayyad, Sadr al-Din Abu al-Majami` al-Hamawayni or al-Hamawi al-Shafi`i.
9. Tafsir al-Qur'an al-`Azim - Ibn Kathir, `Imad al-Din Isma`il b. `Umar b. Kathir b. Daw', al-Qarashi al-Dimashqi.
D. References of Hassan Bin. Thabits poetry:
1. Ma nazala min al-Qur'an fi `Ali - Abu Nu`aym, Ahmad b. `Abd Allah, al-'Isfahani.
2. Fara'id al-samtayn fi fada'il al-Murtada wa al-batul wa al-sibtayn - al-Juwayni, Ibrahim b. Muhammad b. al-Mu'ayyad, Sadr al-Din Abu al-Majami` al-Hamawayni or al-Hamawi al-Shafi`i.
3. Kashf al-ghamma fi ma`rifat al-A'immah - al-Irbili, `Ali b. `Isa b. Abi al-Fath, Abu al-Hasan al-'Irbili.
4. al-'Azhar fi ma `aqdahu al-shu`ara' min al-'ash`ar - al-Suyuti, Jalal al-Din `Abd al-Rahman b. Kamal al-Din Abi Bakr, al-Shafi`i.
5. Kifayat al-Talib - Muhammad b. Yusuf b. Muhammad, Abu `Abd Allah al-Kanji al-Shafi`i.
6. al-Khasa'is al-`Alawiyyah - Muhammad b. `Ali b. Ibrahim, Abu al-Fath al-Natanzi.
7. Tadhkirat khawass al-'ummah fi ma`rifat al-a'immah - Sibt b. al-Jawzi, Shams al-Din Yusuf b. Qizughli, Abu al-Muzaffar.
E. References of Oath of allegiance as mentioned above:
1. Al-Bidayah wa'l-Nihayah fi al-Ta'rikh - Ibn Kathir, `Imad al-Din Isma`il b. `Umar b. Kathir b. Daw', al-Qarashi al-Dimashqi.
2. Manaqib `Ali b. Abi Talib - Ibn Hanbal, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Hanbal b. Hilal b. Asad, Abu `Abd Allah al-Shaybani al-Marwazi.
3. Al-Musannaf - Ibn Abi Shaybah, `Abd Allah b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim b. `Uthman, Abu Bakr al-`Absi al-Kufi.
4. Fada'il `Ali - `Abd Allah b. Ahmad b. Hanbal, Abu `Abd al-Rahman al-Shaybani.
5. al-Fusul al-muhimmah li ma`rifat al-a'immah - Ibn al-Sabbagh, Nur al-Din `Ali b. Muhammad b. Ahmad, al-Ghazzi al-Maliki.
6. Manaqib Al Abi Talib - Ibn Shahrashub, Muhammad b. `Ali, Abu Ja`far.
7. Sharaf al-Mustafa - `Abd al-Malik b. Muhammad, Abu Sa`d al-Wa`iz al-Nisaburi al-Kharkushi (al-Khargushi).
8. Tafsir Kashf wa'l-bayan - Al-Tha`labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Abu Ishaq al-Nisaburi.
9. Riyad al-Nadirah - Muhibb al-Din Ahmad b. `Abd Allah, Abu al-`Abbas al-Tabari al-Makki al-Shafi`i.
Again due to paucity of space we limit to 9 books refferences. There are otherwise atleast 76 chains of narrators mentioned in books for this.

F. The revelation of the verse 70:1-3 is regarding the event of the dispute of Harith as mentioned earlier. References for this are:
1. al-'Arba`in fi fada'il Amir al-Mu'minin - Jamal al-Din `Ata' Allah b. Fadl Allah, al-Husayni al-Shirazi.
2. Tafsir Kashf wa'l-bayan - Al-Tha`labi, Ahmad b. Muhammad b. Ibrahim, Abu Ishaq al-Nisaburi.
3. Tadhkirat khawass al-'ummah fi ma`rifat al-a'immah - Sibt b. al-Jawzi, Shams al-Din Yusuf b. Qizughli, Abu al-Muzaffar.
4. al-'Iktifa fi fadl al-'arba`ah al-khulafa' - Ibrahim b. `Abd Allah, al-Wassabi al-Yamani al-Shafi`i.
5. Hidayat al-su`ada' - Shihab al-Din Ahmad b. Shams al-Din `Umar, Malik al-`Ulama' al-Zawali al-Dawlatabadi.
6. Ma`arij al-wusul - al-Zarandi, Jamal al-Din Muhammad b. Yusuf b. al-Hasan al-Madani al-'Ansari al-Hanafi.
7. Wasilat al-ma'al fi `add manaqib al-'Al - Ba Kathir al-Makki, Ahmad b. al-Fadl b. Muhammad, al-Shafi`i.
8. Jawahir al`iqdayn fi fadl al-sharafayn sharaf al-`ilm al-jali wa al-nasab al-`ali - al-Samhudi, Nur al-Din `Ali b. `Abd Allah b. Ahmad, al-Hasani al-Shafi`i.
9. al-Fusul al-muhimmah li ma`rifat al-a'immah - Ibn al-Sabbagh, Nur al-Din `Ali b. Muhammad b. Ahmad, al-Ghazzi al-Maliki.
Again we are unable to mention other sources due to paucity of space. There are atleast 31 chains of transmitters for this.
Excuse 2: The word Maula used in the tradition does not imply master but it means friend. Hence the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) actually announced about the friendship of Ali (A.S.) on the day of Ghadir and not about mastership of Ali(A.S.).
Though multitude of reasons could be proffered to nullify the above excuse we will mention only 5 of them:
A. The first proof is the Holy Qur'an and the revelation of the verse: "O Apostle! deliver that which has been revealed to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message, and Allah will protect you from the people." (5.67)
Qazi in Kashf Ghumma gives a report from Razi Bin Abdullah: "In the days of the Holy Prophet we used to read this verse thus: 'O our Prophet (Muhammad) deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord, that is, Ali is the master of the believers. If you do not, then you have not delivered His message." Also Suyuti in his Durru'l-Mansur from Ibn Mardawiyya, Ibn Asakir and Ibn Abi Hatim from Abu Sa'id Khadiri, Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (one of the writers of Wahi - revelations) and Qazi Shukani in Tafsir-e-Fathu'l-Ghadir narrate that in the day of the Holy Prophet they also recited that verse in that very way. In short, the warning contained in this verse says: "If you do it not then (it will be as if) you have not delivered His message (at all)..." shows that the message which the Holy Prophet had been ordered to deliver was of great importance. It was in fact essential to the completion of Prophethood itself. Therefore, the issue in question was surely the matter of the imamate, the conferring of authority on one who would guide the people according to the tenets of Islam after the death of the Holy Prophet. This important issue cannot be the friendship of someone by any stretch of imagination.
B. Second proof is the revelation of the verse "This day have I perfected for you your religion and completed my favor on you and chosen for you Islam for a religion." (5:3). Scholars trusted by sunnis, such as Jalalu'd-din Suyuti in Durru'l-Mansur, vol. II, p. 256 and Itqan, vol. I, p. 31; Imamu'l-Mufassirin Tha'labi in Kashfu'l-Bayan; Hafiz Abu Nu'aim Ispahani in Ma Nusala Mina'l-Qur'an Fi Ali; Abu'l-Fatha Nazari in Khasa'isu'l-Alawi; Ibn Kathir Shami in Tafsir, vol. II, p. 41, following Hafiz Ibn Mardawiyya: Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari, scholar, commentator and historian of the 3rd century A.H. in Tafsir-e-Kitabu'l-Wilaya; Hafiz Abu'l-Qasim Haskani in Shawahid-ut-Tanzil; Sibt Ibn Jauzi in Tadhkira-e-Khawasu'l-Umma, p. 18; Abu Ishaq Hamwaini in Fara'id-us-Simtain, ch. XII; Abu Sa'id Sijistani in Kitabu'l-Wilaya; Al-Khatib-e-Baghdadi in Ta'rikh-e-Baghdad, vol. VIII, p. 290; Ibn Maghazili Faqih Shafi'i in Manaqib, ch. XIV and Maqtalu'l-Husain, ch. IV, all have written that on the day of Ghadir-e-Khum the Holy Prophet appointed Ali by divine order to the rank of wilaya (Vicegerent). He told the people whatever he was ordained to say about Ali and raised his hands so high that the white of both his armpits was visible. He addressed the people thus: "Salute Ali because he is the amir (lord) of the believers. The whole Community complied with his order. They had not yet departed from one another when the aforesaid verse was revealed." The Holy Prophet was highly pleased with the revelation of this verse. So, addressing the people, he said: "Allah is Great, He who has perfected for them their religion and has completed His favor on them and is satisfied with my Prophethood and Ali's vicegerency after me."
C. In that hot desert, where there was no protection for the travelers, the Holy Prophet gathered the whole umma. People sat in the shade of the camels, with their feet covered, in the scorching heat of the sun. In these conditions the Prophet delivered a long address, which Khawarizmi and Ibn Mardawiyya in their Manaqib, and Tabari in his Kitabu'l-Wilaya and others have narrated. Does it make sense to think that the Prophet would require thousands of his followers to spend three days in the blazing desert to swear allegiance to Ali merely to indicate that Ali was their friend? It is reasonable to conclude therefore, that these arrangements were made not merely to indicate that people should befriend Ali. The event, in fact, marked the completion of the Prophet's message: the establishment of the Imamate, the source of the umma's guidance after the death of the Prophet.
D. Some of sunni reputable ulema have acknowledged that the primary meaning of "maula" is "master." Among them is Sibt Ibn Jauzi, who after giving ten meanings of the word in his Tadhkira-e-Khawas, ch. II, p. 20, says that none of them except the tenth one corresponds with what the Holy Prophet meant to say. He says: "The hadith specifically means obedience; so the tenth meaning is correct, and it means 'mastery over others.' Hence, the hadith means 'of whomever I am the 'maula' (master) Ali is also his 'maula' (master)." In the book Maraju'l-Bahrain Hafiz Abdu'l-Faraj Yahya Bin Sa'id Saqafi interprets it in the same way. He narrates this hadith with his own sources from his leaders, who said that the Holy Prophet, holding Ali by the hand, said: "Of whomsoever I am 'wali' or master over himself, Ali is also his 'wali' or master over himself." Sibt Ibn Jauzi says, "The saying of the Holy Prophet that Ali has authority or is the master over the selves of all the believers clearly proves the Imamate or vicegerency of Ali and that obedience to him is obligatory."
E. Ali (A.S.) himself has referred to the tradition of Ghadir to mean master and has emphasised that he was clearly appointed as the vicegerant at Ghadir. Also others have referred to this event in form of ihtejaj(protest) or Munashadah(adjuration). Some places where Ali(A.S.) has reminded the event of Ghadir vis-a-vis his appointment as vicegerant are: (a.) On the day of shura (counsel after Umar's death). (b.) During the days of Uthmans rule. (C.) The Day of Rahbah (year 35 AH) when many Companions stood up and bore witness that they attended and heard the tradition of the Prophet [s] first hand, twelve of whom were the participants of the Battle of Badr. (d.) The Battle of al-Jamal, year 36 AH where he reminded Talhah b. 'Ubaydullah. (e.) The Day of the Rukban (riders) where several witnesses testified. (f.) The Day of Battle of Siffin (year 37 AH). Other members of the Household reminded people: (a.)Ihtejaj by Fatimah al-Zahra'(S.A.) (b.) Munashadah by Imam Husein(A.S.) (c.)Munashadah by Imam Husayn(A.S.).Other munashadahs and ihtejaj: munashadah of youth with Abu Hurayrah; Ihtijaj of Abd Allah b. Ja'far with Mu'awiyah; Ihtijaj in refutation of Amr b. al-'Asi; Ihtijaj of Amr b. al-'Asi with Mu'awiyah; Ihtijaj of Ammar b. Yasir on day of Siffin; Ihitjaj of Asbagh b. Nubata in a sitting with Mu'awiyah; Munashadah of a man with Zayd b. Arqam; Munashadah of an Iraqi man with Jabir b. Abd Allah al-Ansari; Ihtijaj of Qays al-Ansari with Mu'awiyah in Madinah; Ihtijaj Darmiyyah al-Hajwaniyyah with Mu'awiyah; Ihtijaj of Amr al-Awdi; Ihtijaj of Umar b. Abd al-aziz, the Umayyad caliph; ihtijaj of Ma'mun, the Abbasid caliph, with jurists.
The above clearly refutes the second excuse and renders it baseless.
Excuse 3: It does not appeal to our common sense that the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) appointed Ali (A.S.) as his successor in clear terms and still the companions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.) disobeyed him and after his death appointed a vicegerant by themselves.
A. This excuse may be common (commonly used frivolous argument) but it is not sense. Common sense does actually accept it very easily that if any leader identifies a vicegerant and the followers and not entirely sincere then the followers will not abide by this appointment.
B. Both the sects accept that the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) had said " You are to me as Aaron was to Moses except that there shall be no prophet after me." Now let us analyse the similarities between Aaron and Ali(A.S.) so that we come to understand how it is possible for the companions of a Prophet to disobey and disregard the clear appointment of the vicegerant. The Holy Qur'an states that when Moses appointed Aaron his successor, he gathered round him the Bani Isra'il (according to some reports, 70,000 people). Moses emphasized that in his absence they should obey Aaron, his Caliph and successor. Moses then went up the mountain to be alone with Allah. Before a month passed, Samiri incited dissension among the Isra'ilis. He fashioned a golden calf and the Bani Isra'il, having left Aaron, gathered round the treacherous Samiri in large numbers. It had been only a short time before this that the same Bani Isra'il had heard Moses say that during his absence Aaron was to be his Caliph and that they should obey him. Nevertheless, 70,000 people followed Samiri. The Prophet Aaron loudly protested this action and forbade them from indulging in such sinful acts, but no one listened to him. The verse of Sura A'raf states that when Moses came back, Aaron said to him: "Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me..." (7:150). The Bani Isra'il themselves heard the clear instruction from Moses, but when Moses went up to the mountain, Samiri seized his opportunity. He fashioned a golden calf and misguided the Bani Isra'il. Similarly, after the death of the Prophet, some people who had heard him say that Ali was his successor, turned against Ali. Imam Ghazali referred to this fact in the beginning of his fourth treatise in Sirru'l-'Alamin. He states that some people returned to the state of their former ignorance. In this respect, there is great similarity between the situation of Aaron and that of Ali. Like many of renowned sunni scholars and historians, Abu Muhammad Abdullah Bin Muslim Bin Qutayba Bahili Dinawari, the well-known Qazi of Dinawar, in his Al-Imama Wa Siyasa, Volume I, page 14, narrates in detail the events of Saqifa. He says that they threatened to burn down Ali's house and they forcibly took him to the mosque and threatened to kill him unless he swore allegiance to them. Ali went to the sacred grave of the Prophet and repeated the same words of the Holy Qur'an which Aaron spoke to Moses: "He (Aaron) said: Son of my mother! Surely the people reckoned me weak and had well-nigh slain me..." (7:150).
C. Not all those 120,000 Muslims who were at Ghadir stayed at Madineh. Only a few thousand stayed at Madinah. Out of these also many were bedouins or slaves or poor men. Only a maximum of 100 influential people had gathered at Saqifa. So it will be wrong to say that all 120,000 people present at the day of Ghadir conspired and disobeyed the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). Out of these only less than 100 influential people conspired and selected a vicegerant by themselves going against the verdict and order of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) himself. It should not astonish us that around 100 people went against the verdict of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.).
D. Communication system was not strong in those days. By the time everyone came to know of the selection of Abu Bakr against the verdict of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) it was too late. Abu Bakr had already become too powerful in material terms. Even if someone tried to oppose the ruling caliph he was silenced either through temptation or through intimidation. The episode of Malik Ibn Nuwayrah is a glaring example in this.
E. All the companions were not obedient. There are so many instances to prove the disobedience of the companions. (a.) During the last days of his blessed life, the Messenger of God prepared an army to do battle with the Byzantines and he appointed Usamah b. Zayd to be its commander. This appointment of a young man, despite the availability of older and more experienced men, proved displeasing to some of the Companions, and led to an argument among them. Those who were strongly opposed to Usamah b. Zayd asked the Prophet to dismiss him, but he paid no attention to their request and commanded Abu Bakr, 'Umar and 'Uthman to join the ranks of the Muslim army as it departed from Madinah. However, they not only disregarded military discipline but also disobeyed the categorical command of the Prophet. Instead of proceeding to the front with the army, they split off and returned to Madinah - Ibn Hisham, al-Sirah, Vol. IV p. 338; al-Ya'qubi, al-Tarikh, Vol. II, p.92; Ibn al-Athir, al-Kamil, Vol. II, pp. 120-21. (b.) Some Sunni historians and hadith scholars have written that when the Prophet decided to write a document that would prevent the Muslims from going astray 'Umar said: "The Messenger of God has become delirious." Others, however, in order to soften the offensiveness of his words, maintain that he said: "Sickness has overcome the Prophet; you have the Book of God at your disposal, which is enough for us." - Muslim, al-Sahih, Vol. III, p. 1259; al-Bukhari, al-Sahih, Vol. IV , p. 5; Ahmad b. Hanbal, al-Musnad, hadith no. 2992.,when companions could disobey the Holy Prophet( S.A.W.) in his presence they can very easily disobey in his absence after death. But here it is worth mentioning that there were respectable and independent minded companions who did not change their position after the death of the Prophet. They obeyed the appointment of Ali(A.S.) as the vicegerent that took place at Ghadir. Although they were more or less compelled to remain silent, they remained loyal to 'Ali b. Abi Talib, peace be upon him, as leader. Among the outstanding personalities belonging to this group were Salman al-Farisi, Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, Khuzaymah b. Thabit, Miqdad b. al-Aswad, al-Kindi, 'Ammar b. yasir, Ubayy b. Ka'b, Khalid b. Sa'id, Bilal, Qays b. Sa'd, Aban, Buraydah al-Ashami, Abu 'l-Haytham b. al-Tayyihan, as well as many others whose names are recorded in Islamic history. Some scholars have listed two hundred and fifty Companions of the Prophet, complete with names and descriptions, as belonging to this class.
We have enunciated sufficient reasons to dispel all possibilities for excuses. Here we would also like to quote an orientalist for sake of reference. Vaglieri has said in the Encyclopaedia of Islam about Ghadir Khumm: It is, however, certain that Muhammad did speak in this place and utter the famous sentence, for the account of this event has been preserved, either in a concise form or in detail, not only by al-Ya'kubi, whose sympathy for the 'Alid cause is well known, but also in the collection of traditions which are considered canonical, especially in the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal; and the hadiths are so numerous and so well attested by the different isnãds that it does not seem possible to reject them. Vaglieri continues, "Several of these hadiths are cited in the bibliography, but it does not include the hadíth which, although reporting the sentence, omit to name Ghadir Khumm, or those which state that the sentence was pronounced at al-Hudaybiya. The complete documentation will be facilitated when the Concordance of Wensinck have been completely published. In order to have an idea of how numerous these hadiths are, it is enough to glance at the pages in which Ibn Kathir has collected a great number of them with their isnads."
Muhammad Bin Talha Shafi'i in his Matalibu's-Su'ul in Part V, ch. 1, p. 16, says "In this hadith(of Ghadir) the Holy Prophet indicated that whatever obligations the believers had in respect to him, they had also in respect to Ali. As the Holy Prophet was certainly master of the believers in all of their matters, their helper, leader, and chief - all of these being connotations of the word "maula" - then it follows that he meant the same thing for Ali (A.S.) also. And this is of course, an exalted position, an eminently high rank, which was specifically assigned to Ali. It is for this reason that the Day of Ghadir was a day of eid and rejoicing for the lovers and friends of Ali."
Also Ibne Khalakan in Vafiyaat-ol-Ayan and Abu Rayhan Biruni in (Asar-al-Baghiyeh), besides so many others, considered Ghadir as one of the holidays that all Muslims realized and celebrated.
After all the painstaking efforts we are unmistakably able to conclude that the present problems of the Muslim Ummah are due to the mistakes and falsehood of the previous generation and not the present. This root of all falsehood is the disregard of the Holy Prophet's (S.A.W.) words when he appointed Ali (A.S.) at Ghadir. Now if we would like to correct the error that had taken place in the earlier times then Allah (S.W.T.) has given opportunity to us. After Ali (A.S.) there are 11 more vicegerents. Like the tradition specifies:
Sheikh Sulayman Balkhi Hanafi in his Yanabiu'l-Mawadda, ch.76, reports from Fara'idu's-Simtain of Hamwaini, who reports from Mujahid, who reports from Ibn Abbas, that a Jew named Na'thal came to the Holy Prophet and asked him questions about Tawhid (Unity of Allah). The Holy Prophet answered his questions and the Jew embraced Islam. Then he said: "O Holy Prophet, every prophet had a wasi (vicegerent). Our Prophet, Moses Bin Imran, made a will for Yusha Bin Nun. Please tell me who is your wasi?" The Holy Prophet said: "My vicegerent is Ali Bin Abi Talib; after him are Hasan, and Husain and after them are nine Imams, who are the successive descendants of Husain."
Na'thal asked the Holy Prophet the names of those Imams. The Holy Prophet said: "After Husain, his son, Ali, will be the Imam; after him his son, Muhammad; after him his son, Ja'far; after him his son Musa; after him his son, Ali; after him his son, Muhammad; after him his son, Hasan; after him his son, Muhammad Mahdi will be the last Imam. There will be twelve Imams."
In addition to the names of the nine Imams, this hadith further states that each would succeed as Imam after his father. Na'thal made further inquiries, and the Holy Prophet described the manner of death of each Imam.
Then Na'thal said, "I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are His Holy Prophet. I bear witness that these twelve holy Imams are your vicegerents after you. What you have said is exactly what is recorded in our books and in the will of Moses."
Then the Holy Prophet said: "Paradise is for him who loves them and obeys them, and Hell is for him who is hostile to them and opposes them."
Na'thal then recited some couplets to the effect that "May Allah, the Exalted, shower His blessings upon you, chosen Prophet and pride of the Bani Hashim. Allah has guided us by means of you and the twelve holy men whom you have named. Certainly Allah has purified them and preserved them from impurity. He who loves them is successful. He who hates them is the loser. The last of the Imams will quench the thirst of the thirsty. He is the one the people will wait for. Prophet of Allah, your progeny is a blessing for me and for all the believers. Those who turn away from them will soon be thrown into Hell."
Here we see that people get the opportunity to obey the present Imam even if he misses the time of the previous Imam. People got opportunity to obey and serve the Imams of their respective times. Similarly we have got the opportunity to obey and serve the 12th Imam(A.F.). By this we can undo the past errors of the previous generations. We may wonder that Ali(A.S.) cannot be followed directly now because of his absence and the obedience required vis-a-vis the event of Ghadir cannot be apparently accomplished. But the truth is we can still accomplish that obedience by obeying the final vicegerent of Ali(A.S.), by submitting to the orders of the Imam(A.F.) who is sitting at the position of Ali(A.S.) today. For increased benefits of the Imam(A.F.) we should be true expectants of the re-appearance of the Imam(A.F.). For with the re-appearance of the Imam(A.F.) we will receive justice and all the past errors will be set right by the Imam(A.S.). But to be the true expectants of the Imam(A.F.) we should at least take care of the following: 1. True recognition of the Imam(A.F.) - Since everything starts with the true recognition without which it is impossible to proceed and obey him. 2. Learning our duties and submitting to the words of Imam(A.F.) - We must first learn our duties and then also follow the words of the Imam(A.F.). If we do not follow the words of the Imam(A.F.) then what will be the difference between us and those who disobeyed the words of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) proclaimed at Ghadir? 3. Educating others about religion - Since Imam(A.F.) will be acting on a social basis and not only on an individual basis it is necessary that we educate others so as to form a more conducive society for the Imam(A.F.). 4. Awaiting the reappearance - we should await every moment that the Imam(A.F.) will reappear and hence should be prepared to launch the revolution of Imam(A.S.) 5. Pray for the relief - There are 2 benefits in this praying, one is that before the social relief happens our own individual relief will take place immediately. Second is that we will have our vital role to play in the social relief.
There are at least 185 sunni books which have mentioned the event of Ghadir. It is not possible to mention all of them here but we mention just a few:

1. The well known commentator and historian of the fourth century hijri, Abu Ja'far Muhammad Bin Jarir Tabari (died 310 A.H.), gives complete details of the hadith of Ghadir in his book Kitabu'l-Wilaya and has narrated it through seventy-five chains of transmission.

Complete Ghadir Khutba

In the Name of Allah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful
This is the first English book published by the newly-born Darul Islam Center, Inc., and
we hope and pray that it will herald many, many more. It is the Center's gift to the Muslim Ummah in general and to the Muslims of the greater Washington, D.C., area
in particular presented to them on the anniversary of Eid al-Ghadir , 1419
A.H./1999 A.D.
We owe special thanks to Muhammed Baqir al-Ansari whose Arabic book Altogether in Ghadlr (published by Ansariyan Publications, Qum, Islamic Republic of Iran) is this book's main reference.
May the Almighty accept our efforts to serve His religion, and
may He guide our steps to what He loves and prefers, Allahomma Ameen.
Darul Islam Center, Inc.
Thul-Hijjah 1419/March 1999

(10 A.H./632 A.D.)
Non-Muslims who like to attack Islam accuse the Prophet of Islam of having neglected to name his successor, not knowing that he actually did exactly so in accordance with the Divine order which he had received on Thul-Hijja 17, 10 A.H./March 18, 632 A.D., announcing the name of his successor the very next day, and here are the details:
In 10 A.H./632 A.D., immediately following Hijjatul-Wada' (the Farewell Pilgrimage, the last pilgrimage performed by Prophet Mohammed), a divine order was revealed to the Prophet to convey the remaining Islamic tenets: the annual pilgrimage to Mecca and the Imamate of the Twelve Infallible Imams. The Prophet called upon the faithful to accompany him on his last pilgrimage; he knew that it would be his last and that he would soon have to leave this temporary abode for the eternal one. More than one hundred and twenty thousand Muslims responded to his call.
The Prophet and his company put on the ihram garbs at the appropriate time at Masjid al-Shajara, a short distance from Mecca, his birthplace, which he entered on Thul-Hijja 5, 10 A.H./March 6, 632 A.D. The Prophet's call reached Yemen where' Ali ibn Abu Talib  was acting as his representative. Twelve thousand Yemenite pilgrims came out headed
by' Ali in response to the Prophet's call to accompany him on his historic Pilgrimage, bringing the total number of those early pilgrims to more than one hundred and thirty-two thousand.
The Islamic pilgrimage starts in the month of Thul-Hijja (month of the pilgrimage), the last Islamic lunar calendar month, and continues for at least ten days. First, each pilgrim dons a special garb called ihram; males' ihram consists of two white sheets or towels covering the upper and lower parts of the body, whereas females wear a full white cotton outfit, simple and modest. This ihram reminds the pilgrim of his/her death and of the
equality of all before God. All pilgrims perform the same rituals; none receives any favourable treatment or distinction on account of his status, power, or wealth. The pilgrimage starts by the tawaf the circling of the Ka'ba seven times. The Ka'bais identified in Islamic literature as an earthly counterpart to the Almighty's Throne (' Arsh) in heaven where the angels circle it in adoration. Likewise, in imitation of those angels, Muslim pilgrims circle the Ka'ba in adoration of their Lord. The tawaf is followed by the
sa'i: the pilgrims run back and forth seven times between the -Safa and the Marwa in commemoration of Hagar (Hajar), mother of Ishmael, frantically searching for water for her newborn son Ishmael. After that, the pilgrims drink of the well of Zamzam which had appeared miraculously for Hagar and Ishmael, wash with it or use it to make ablution for prayers at the Ka'ba but never to use it in the toilet; Zamzam is too sacred for such an
application. Then the pilgrims leave Mecca for Muzdalifa, 'Arafa, and finally Mina to perform certain rites which fall outside the scope of this book which is intended to be a historical account of the Prophet of Islam, not one of fiqh. The author is a writer, a researcher, someone who, according to a friend of mine, "insists on finding out who the foundling's father is!" But he is not a faqih. Now let us go back to our original story
after having cast a glimpse at the rite of the pilgrimage in Islam.
It was at' Arafa that the divine command was received by Prophet Muhammad to appoint 'Ali as "Ameerul-Mo'mineen," the Commander of the Faithful, title of the bearer of the highest temporal and religious powers in the Islamic State, one reserved solely for caliphs, those who are supposed to be the most knowledgeable of all people of secular  and religious problems and of how to solve them. Muhammad was also ordered to convey to' Ali the knowledge which the Almighty had bestowed upon him so that it would not be lost once he is dead. In Mina, the Prophet delivered two sermons in preparation of the great announcement to come. In the first, he referred to' Ali's caliphate and reminded the audience of one particular hadith which he had conveyed to them on various occasions and which is identified in books of hadith as " hadith al-thaqa-
 Linguistically, the meaning of" Arneerul- Mo'mineen " is: the one who bestows knowledge on the believers, the one who "meers" (pours knowledge upon) them.
lain," tradition of the two weighty things (the first being the Holy Quran and the second being the Prophet's Progeny, the" Ahl al-Bayt" mentioned in verse 33 of Chapter 33 [al-Ahzab] of the Holy Qur'an). He delivered his second sermon at Masjid al-Khaif, also located in Mina in the Meccan valley. In it, the Prophet reminded his audience of' Ali's Imamate, emphasizing the necessity of disseminating the contents of his sermon,
announcing that those present were duty-bound to convey it to those who were absent. In both of these sermons, the Prophet publicly vested upon' Ali both powers referred to above.
As soon as the rituals of the pilgrimage were completed, and to be exact on Thul-Hijja 17, 10 A.H./March 18, 632 A.D., the divine order came to the Prophet embedded in verse 67 of Chapter 5 (a1-Ma'ida) quoted in the text of the Prophet's sermon to follow. The Prophet immediately ordered Bilal ibn Rabah, his caller to prayers and one of his faithful sahaba, to convey the following order to the faithful: "Tomorrow, nobody should lag
behind but should go to Ghadir Khumm."
The word "ghadir" means "swamp," an area where rain water gathers to form a shallow lake. Ghadir Khumm is located near the crossroads of trade and pilgrimage caravans coming from Medina, Egypt, Iraq, Syria, and Nejd on their way to Mecca. The presence of water and a few old trees there served as a resting place for trade caravans for centuries. A mosque, called Masjid al-Ghadir, was later built on the same spot where
the great gathering took place to commemorate that momentous event, an event which has unfortunately been forgotten by the vast majority of the Muslims who, by thus forgetting, forgot the most important part of their creed, one without which their faith is not complete at all according to the Prophet's sermon to follow and according to the text of the Holy Qur'an...
The announcement conveyed by Bilal was transmitted by one person to another till it reached as far as Mecca proper, and people were wondering about what it could be. They had expected the Prophet to linger a little bit longer at Mecca where the pilgrims could meet him and ask him whatever questions they had about this new institution called "hajj" and about other religious matters.
In the morning of the next day, Thul-1:1ijja 18, 10 A.H./March 19, 632A.D., the Prophet and his 120,000 companions went to Ghadir Khumm, and so did' Ali with his 12,000 Yemenite pilgrims who had to change their route to the north instead of to the south where they would be home-bound. The Prophet also issued an order to four of his closest sahaba, namely Selman-al-Farisi, Abu Tharr al-Ghifari, Miqdad ibn al-Aswad al-Kindi and' Ammar ibn yasir, with whom the reader is already familiar, to clear the area where the old trees stood, to uproot the thorn bushes, collect the rocks and stones, and to clean the place and sprinkle it with water. Then these men took a piece of cloth which they tied between two of those trees, thus providing some shade. The Prophet told those sahaba that a ceremony that would last for three continuous days would be held in that area. Then the same men piled the rocks on top of each other and made a makeshift pulpit over them of camel litters as high as the Prophet's own length. They put another piece of cloth on the pulpit which was installed in the middle of the crowd, giving the Prophet an overview of the whole gathering. A man was selected to repeat loudly what the Prophet was saying so that those who stood the furthermost would not miss a word.
The athan for the noon prayers was recited, and the congregational (jama 'a) prayers were led by the Prophet. After that, the Prophet ascended the pulpit and signaled to' Ali ibn Abu Talib to stand on his right. ' Ali did so, standing one pulpit step below the Prophet. Before saying anything, the Prophet looked right and left to make sure that people were
prepared to listen to every word of his. The sun was so hot that people had to pull some of their outer mantles over their heads and under their feet in order to be able to somehow tolerate the heat. Finally the Prophet delivered his historic sermon which he intended, as the reader will see, to be not only for the assembled crowd but for all those who were not present at that gathering and for all their offspring, one generation after another, till the
Day of Judgment.
Here is the text of the Prophet's sermon. We hope it will bring the reader guidance in the life of this world and happiness and success in the life to come through the intercession of Muhammad, the one loved most by Allah, peace and blessings of the Almighty be upon him, his progeny, and true companions who obeyed him during his lifetime and after
his demise and who did not forget or pretend to forget his following khutba:


There is a humble translation of the Prophet's historic Ghadir Khumm sermon. The reader can review the original Arabic text included in this book.
All Praise is due to Allah Who is Exalted in His Unity, Near in His Uniqueness, Sublime in His Authority, Magnanimous in His Dominance. He knows everything; He subdues all creation through His might and evidence. He is Praised always and forever, Glorified and has no end. He begins and He repeats, and to Him every matter is referred.
Allah is the Creator of everything; He dominates with His power the earth and the heavens. Holy, He is, and Praised, the Lord of the angels and of the spirits. His
favours overwhelm whatever He creates, and He is the Mighty over whatever He initiates. He observes all eyes while no eye can observe Him. He is Generous, Clement,
Patient. His mercy encompasses everything, and so is His giving. He never rushes His revenge, nor does He hasten the retribution they deserve. He comprehends what the
breast conceals and what the conscience hides. No inner I thought can be concealed from Him, nor does He confuse one with another. He encompasses everything, dominates
everything, and subdues everything. Nothing is like Him. He initiates the creation from nothing; He is everlasting, living, sustaining in the truth; there is no god but He, the
Omnipotent, the Wise One.
He is greater than can be conceived by visions, while He conceives all visions, the Eternal, the Knowing. None can describe Him by seeing Him, nor can anyone
find out how He is, be it by his intellect or by a spoken word except through what leads to Him, the Sublime, the Mighty that He is.
I testify that He is Allah, the One Who has filled time with His Holiness, the One Whose Light overwhelms eternity, Who effects His will without consulting anyone; there is no partner with Him in His decisions, nor is He assisted in running His affairs. He
shaped what He made without following a preexisting model, and He created whatever He created without receiving help from anyone, nor did doing so exhaust Him nor frustrated His designs. He created, and so it was, and He initiated, and it became visible. So He is Allah, the One and Only God, the One Who does whatever He does extremely well. He is the Just One Who never oppresses, the most Holy to Whom all affairs are referred.
I further testify that He is Allah before Whom everything is humbled, to Whose Greatness everything is humiliated, and to Whose Dignity everything submits. He
is the King of every domain and the One Who places planets in their orbits. He controls the movements of the sun and of the moon, each circles till a certain time. He
makes the night follow the day and the day follow the night, seeking it incessantly. He splits the spine of every stubborn tyrant and annihilates every mighty devil.
Never has there been any opponent opposing Him nor a peer assisting Him. He is Independent; He never begets nor is He begotten, and none can ever be His
equal. He is One God, the Glorified Lord. His will is done; His word is the law. He knows, so He takes account. He causes death and gives life. He makes some
poor and others rich. He causes some to smile and others to cry .He brings some nearer to Him while distancing others from Him. He withholds and He gives. The domain
belongs to Him and so is all the Praise. In His hand is all goodness, and He can do anything at all.
He lets the night cover the day and the day cover the night; there is no god but He, the Sublime, the oft-Forgiving One. He responds to the supplication; He gives
generously; He computes the breath; He is the Lord of the jinns and of mankind, the One Whom nothing confuses, nor is He annoyed by those who cry for His help, nor is
He fed-up by those who persist. He safeguards the righteous against sinning, and He enables the winners to win. He is the Master of the faithful, the Lord of the
Worlds Who deserves the appreciation of all those whom He created and is praised no matter what.
I praise Him and always thank Him for the ease He brings me and for the constriction, in hardship and in prosperity, and I believe in Him, in His angels, in His Books and messengers. I listen to His Command and I obey, and I initiate the doing of whatever pleases Him, and I submit to His decree hoping to acquire obedience to
Him and fear of His penalty, for He is Allah against Whose designs nobody should feel secure, nor should anyone ever fear His "oppression."
I testify, even against my own soul, that I am His servant, and I bear witness that he is my Lord. I convey what He reveals to me, being cautious lest I should not do
it, so a catastrophe from Him would befall upon me, one which none can keep away, no matter how great his design may be and how sincere his friendship. There is no
god but He, for He has informed me that if I do not convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali in truth, I will not have conveyed His Message at all, and He, the Praised and the Exalted One, has guaranteed for me to protect me from the (evil) people, and He is Allah, the One Who suffices, the Sublime. He has just revealed to me the following (verse):
In The Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.
O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall
Protect you from (evil) people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.
(Qur'an, 5:67)
O people! I have not committed any shortcoming in conveying what Allah Almighty revealed to me, and I am now going to explain to you the reason behind the revelation of this verse: Three times did Gabriel command me on behalf of the Peace, my Lord, Who is the source of all peace, to thus make a stand in order to inform everyone, black and white, that: ' Ali ibn Abu Talib is my Brother, Wasi, and successor over my nation and the Imam after me, the one whose status to me is like that of Aaron to Moses except there will be no prophet after me, and he is your master next only to Allah and to His Messenger, and Allah has already revealed to me the same in one of the fixed verses1 of His Book saying, "Your Master is Allah and His Messenger and those who believe, those who keep up prayers and pay zakat even as they bow down" (Qur'an, 5:55), and, Ali ibn Abu Talib the one who keeps up prayers, who pays zakat even as he bows down, seeking to please
Allah, the Sublime, the Almighty, on each and every occasion.
I asked Gabriel to plead to the Peace to excuse me from having to convey such a message to you, O
1 Fixed verses are those which are never abrogated; the injunction(s) they contain remain valid forever.
people, due to my knowledge that the pious are few1 while the hypocrites are many, and due to those who will blame me, and due to the trickery of those who ridicule Islam and whom Allah described in His Book as saying with their tongues contrarily to what their hearts conceal, thinking lightly of it, while it is with Allah magnanimous, and due to the abundance of their harm to me, so much so that they called me "ears" and claimed that I am so because of being so much in his (' Ali's) company, always welcoming him, loving him and being so much pleased with him till Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One,
revealed in this regard the verse saying: " And there are some of them who harm the (feelings of the) Prophet and say: He is an ear (uthun; i.e. he always listens to' Ali).
Say: One who listens (to' Ali) is good for you; He
1 The pious are always few in any age or time, creed or faith or clime,in any place, in every space. As many as 72 verses in the Holy Qur'an condemnthe majority, praising the minority, underscoring what mankind knew, that thepious are always few. Indeed, the Prophet's statement is quite weighty, wise,terse, and not hasty. Nowadays, only a few pious ones remember this historic sermon and try their best to keep its memory alive. Yes; it is true, the pious are always few ...

believes in Allah and testifies to the conviction of the believers and a mercy for those of you who believe; and those who (thus ) harm the Messenger of Allah shall have a painful punishment" (Qur'an, 9:61). Had I wished to name those who have called me so, I would have called them by their names, and I would have pointed them out. I would have singled them out and called them by what they really are, but I, by Allah, am fully aware of their affairs. Yet despite all of that, Allah insisted that I should convey what He has just revealed to me in honor of' Ali. Then the Prophet recited the following verse:)
O Messenger! Convey what has (just) been revealed to you (with regard to 'Ali), and if you do not do so, you will not have conveyed His Message at all, and Allah shall protect you from (evil) people. (Qur'an, 5:67)
O people! Comprehend (the implications of) what I have just said, and again do comprehend it, and be (further) informed that Allah has installed him (' Ali) as your
Master and Imam, obligating the Muhajirun and the Ansar and those who follow them in goodness to obey him, and so must everyone who lives in the desert or in the city, who is a non-Arab or an Arab, who is a free man or a slave, who is young or old, white or black, and so should everyone who believes in His Unity. His decree shall be carried out. His (' Ali's) word is binding; his command is obligating; cursed is whoever opposes him,
blessed with mercy is whoever follows him and believes in him, for Allah has already forgiven him and forgiven whoever listens to him and obeys him.
O people! This is the last stand I make in such a situation; so, listen and obey, and submit to the Command of Allah, your Lord, for Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, is your Master and Lord, then next to Him is His Messenger and Prophet who is now addressing
you, then after me 'Ali  is your Master and Imam according to the Command of Allah, your Lord, then the lmams from among my progeny, his offspring, till the Day you meet Allah and His Messenger.
Nothing is permissible except what is deemed so by Allah, His Messenger, and they (the Imams), and nothing is prohibitive except what is deemed so by Allah and His Messenger and they (the Imams). Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime One, has made me acquainted
with what is permissible and what is prohibitive, and I have conveyed to you what my Lord has taught me of His Book, of what it decrees as permissible or as prohibitive.
O people! Prefer him (' Ali) over all others! There is no knowledge except that Allah has divulged it to me, and all the knowledge I have learned I have divulged to Imam al-Muttaqin (leader of the righteous), and there is no knowledge (that I know) except that I
divulged it to' Ali, and he is al-Imam al-Mubin (the evident Imam) whom Allah mentions in Surat ya-Sin: "... and everything We have computed is in (the knowledge of) an evident Imam" (Qur'an, 36:12).
O people! Do not abandon him, nor should you flee away from him, nor should you be too arrogant to accept his authority, for he is the one who guides to righteousness and who acts according to it. He defeats falsehood and prohibits others from acting according to it, accepting no blame from anyone while seeking to please Allah. He is the first to believe in Allah and in His Messenger; none preceded him as such. And he is the one
who offered his life as a sacrifice for the Messenger of Allah and who was in the company of the Messenger of Allah while no other man was. He is the first of all people
to offer prayers and the first to worship Allah with me. I ordered him, on behalf of Allah, to sleep in my bed, and he did, offering his life as a sacrifice for my sake.
O people! Prefer him (over all others), for Allah has preferred him, and accept him, for Allah has appointed him (as your leader).
O people! He is an Imam appointed by Allah, and Allah shall never accept the repentance of anyone who denies his authority, nor shall He forgive him; this is a must decree from Allah never to do so to anyone who opposes him, and that He shall torment him with a most painful torment for all time to come, for eternity; so, beware lest you should oppose him and thus enter the fire the fuel of which is the people and the stones prepared for
the unbelievers.
O people! By Allah! All past prophets and messengers conveyed the glad tiding of my advent, and I, by Allah, am the seal of the prophets and of the messengers and the argument against all beings in the heavens and on earth. Anyone who doubts this commits apostasy similar to that of the early jahiliyya, and anyone who doubts anything of what I have just said doubts everything which has been revealed to me, and anyone
who doubts any of the Imams doubts all of them, and anyone who doubts us shall be lodged in the fire.
O people! Allah, the most Exalted and the Almighty, has bestowed this virtue upon me out of His kindness towards' Ali  and as a boon to' Ali  and there is no god but He; to Him all praise belongs in all times, for eternity, and in all circumstances.
O people! Prefer' Ali  (over all others), for he is the very best of all people after me, be they males or females, so long as Allah sends down His sustenance, so long as there are beings. Cursed and again cursed, condemned and again condemned, is anyone who does
not accept this statement of mine and who does not agree to it. Gabriel himself has informed me of the same on behalf of Allah Almighty Who he said (in Gabriel's
words): " Anyone who antagonizes' Ali and refuses to accept his wilayat shall incur My curse upon him and My wrath." "... and let every soul consider what it has sent forth for the morrow, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah" (Qur'an, 59:18), "And do not make your oaths a means of deceit between you lest a foot should slip after its stability" (Qur'an, 16:94), " Allah is fully aware of all what you do" (Qur'an, 58: 13).
O people! He (' Ali) is janb-Allah mentioned in the Book of Allah, the Sublime One: The Almighty, forewarning his (' Ali's) adversaries, says, "Lest a soul should say: O woe unto me for what I fell short of my duty to Allah, and most surely I was of those who laughed to scorn" (Qur'an, 39:56).
O people! Study the Qur'an and comprehend its verses, look into its fixed verses and do not follow what is similar thereof, for by Allah, none shall explain to you what it forbids you from doing, nor clarify its exegesis, other than the one whose hand I am taking and whom I am lifting to me, the one whose arm I am taking and whom I am lifting, so that I may enable you to understand that: Whoever among you takes me as his master, this, Ali  is his master, and he is' Ali ibn Abu Talib, my Brother and wasi, and his appointment as your wali is from Allah, the Sublime, the Exalted One, a commandment which He revealed to me.
O people! ' Ali and the good ones from among my offspring from his loins are the Lesser Weight, while the Qur'an is the Greater One: each one of them informs you of and agrees with the other. They shall never part till they meet me at the Pool (of Kawthar).
They are the Trustees of Allah over His creation, the rulers on His earth.
Indeed now I have performed my duty and conveyed the Message. Indeed you have heard what I have said and explained. Indeed Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, has said, and so have Ion behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, that there is no
Ameerul-Mo'mineen (Commander of the Faithful) save this Brother of mine; no authority over a believer is permissible after me except to him.
Then the Prophet patted ' Ali's arm, lifting him up. Since the time when the Messenger of Allah ascended the pulpit, Ameerul-Mo'mineen was one pulpit step below where the Messenger of Allah had seated himself on his pulpit, while' Ali  was on his (Prophet's) right side, one pulpit step lower, now they both appeared to the gathering to be on the same level; the Prophet lifted him up. The Prophet then raised his hands to the heavens in
supplication while' Ali's leg was touching the knee of the Messenger of Allah. The Prophet continued his sermon thus:
O people! This is' Ali, my Brother, Wasi, the one who comprehends my knowledge, and my successor over my nation, over everyone who believes in me. He is the one entrusted with explaining the Book of Allah, the most  Exalted One, the Sublime, and the one who invites people to His path. He is the one who does whatever pleases Him, fighting His enemies, befriending His friends who obey Him, prohibiting disobedience to Him. He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah and Ameerul- Mo'mineen, the man assigned by Allah to guide others, killer of the renegades and of those who believe in equals to Allah, those who violate the Commandments of Allah. Allah says, "My Word shall not be changed, nor am I in the least unjust to the servants" (Qur'an, 50.29), and by Your Command, O Lord, do I (submit and) say, O Allah! Befriend whoever befriends him (Ali) and be the enemy of whoever antagonizes him; support whoever supports him and abandon whoever abandons him; curse whoever disavows him, and let Your Wrath descend on whoever usurps his right.
O Lord! You revealed a verse in honor of' Ali, Your wali, in its explanation and to effect Your own appointment of him this very day did You say, "This day have I perfected your religion for you, completed My favour on you, and chosen for you Islam as a religion"
(Qur'an, 5.3); "And whoever desires a religion other than Islam, it shall not be accepted from him, and in the hereafter he shall be one of the losers" (Qur'an, 3:85).
Lord! I implore You to testify that I have conveyed (Your Message).
O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has perfected your religion through his (' Ali's) Imamate; so, whoever rejects him as his Imam or rejects those of my offspring from his loins who assume the same status (as lmams) till the Day of Judgment when they shall all be displayed before Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, these are the ones whose (good) deeds shall be nil and void in the life of this world and in the hereafter, and in the fire shall they be lodged forever, " ...their torture shall not be decreased, nor shall they be given a respite" (Qur'an,2:162).
O people! Here is' Ali, the one who has supported me more than anyone else among you, the one who most deserves my gratitude, the one who is closest of all of you to me and the one who is the very dearest to me. Both Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and I are
pleased with him, and no verse of the Holy Qur'an expressing Allah's Pleasure except that he is implied therein, nor has any verse of praise been revealed in the Qur'an except that he is implied therein, nor has the Lord testified to Paradise in the (Qur'anic) Chapter starting with "Has there not come over man a long period of timewhen he was nothing (not even) mentioned?" (Qur'an, 76:1) nor was this Chapter revealed except in his praise.
O people! He is the one who supports the religion of Allah, who argues on behalf of the Messenger of Allah. He is the pious, the pure, the guide, the one rightly guided. Your Prophet is the best of all prophets, and your wasi is the best of all wasis, and his offspring
are the best of wasis .
O people! Each prophet's progeny is from his own loins whereas mine is from the loins of Arneerul-Mo'mineen ' Ali.
O people! Iblis caused Adam to be dismissed from the garden through envy; so, do not envy him lest your deeds should be voided and lest your feet should slip away, for Adam was sent down to earth after having committed only one sin, and he was among the elite of Allah's creation. How, then, will be your case, and you being who you are, and among you are enemies of Allah?
Indeed, none hates' Ali except a wretch, and none accepts ' Ali's wilayat except a pious person. None believes in him except a sincere mu'min, and in honor of, Ali was the Chapter of 'Asr (Ch. 103) revealed, I swear to it by Allah: "In the Name of Allah, the
Beneficent, the Merciful. I swear by time that most surely man is in loss" (Qur'an, 103:1-2) except' Ali  who believed and was pleased with the truth and with perseverance.
O people! I have sought Allah to be my Witness and have conveyed my Message to you, and the Messenger is obligated only to clearly convey (his Message).
O people! " Fear Allah as Re ought to be feared, and do not die except as Muslims" (Qur'an, 3:102). O people! " ...Believe in what We have revealed, verifying what you have, before We alter faces then turn them on their backs or curse them as We cursed the
violators of the Sabbath" (Qur'an, 4:47). By Allah! Redid not imply anyone in this verse except a certain band of my sahaba whom I know by name and by lineage, and I
have been ordered (by my Lord) to pardon them; so, let each person deal with ' Ali  according to what he finds in his heart of love or of hatred.
O people! The noor from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, flows through me then through ‘Ali ibn Abu Talib  then in the progeny that descends from him till al-Qa'imal-Mehdi, who shall effect the justice of Allah, and who will take back any right belonging to us because Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, made us Hujjat over those who take us lightly, the stubborn ones, those who act contrarily to our word, who are treacherous, who are sinners, who are oppressors, who are usurpers, from the entire world.
O people! I warn you that I am the Messenger of Allah; messengers before me have already passed away; so, should I die or should I be killed, are you going to turn upon your heels? And whoever turns upon his heels shall not harm Allah in the least, and Allah shall reward those who are grateful, those who persevere. 'Ali is surely the one described with perseverance and gratitude, then after him are my offspring from his loins.
O people! Do not think that you are doing me a favour by your accepting Islam. Nay! Do not think that you are doing Allah such a favour lest He should void your deeds, lest His wrath should descend upon you, lest He should try you with a flame of fire and brass; surely your Lord is ever-watchful.
O people! There shall be Imams after me who shall invite people to the fire, and they shall not be helped on the Day of Judgment.
O people! Allah and I are both clear of them.
O people! They and their supporters and followers shall be in the lowest rung of the fire;
miserable, indeed, is the resort of the arrogant ones. Indeed, these are the folks of the sahifa; so, let each one of you look into his sahifa!
This reference to the sahifa has been overlooked by most people with the exception of a small band, and we will, Insha-Allah, shed a light on this sahifa later on. The Prophet continued his historic sermon thus:
O people! I am calling for it to be an Imamate and a succession confined to my offspring till the Day of Judgment, and I have conveyed only what I have been commanded (by my Lord) to convey to drive the argument home against everyone present or absent and on
everyone who has witnessed or who has not, who is already born or he is yet to be born; therefore, let those present here convey it to those who are absent, and let the father convey it to his son, and so on till the Day of Judgment.
And they shall make the Imamate after me a property, a usurpation; may Allah curse the usurpers who usurp1, and it is then that you, O jinns and mankind, will get the full attention of the One Who shall cause a flame of fire and brass to be hurled upon you, and you shall not achieve any victory!
O people! Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, is not to let you be whatever you want to be except so that He may distinguish the bad ones from among you from the good, and Allah is not to make you acquainted with the unknown.
O people! There shall be no town that falsifies except that Allah shall annihilate it on account of its falsehood before the Day of Judgment, and He shall give al-lmam al-Mehdi (U authority over it, and surely Allah's promise is true.
O people! Most of the early generations before
1 This is surely a Prophetic prediction that' Ali's right to the caliphate would be usurped. The usurpers were the very first to swear the oath of allegiance to Ameerul-Mo'mineen ' Ali and the very first to violate it.
you have strayed, and by Allah, He surely annihilated the early generations, and He shall annihilate the later ones. Allah Almighty has said, "Did We not destroy the former
generations? Then did We follow them up with later ones. Even thus shall We deal with the guilty. Woe on that Day to the rejecters!" (Qur'an, 77: 16-19).
O people! Allah has ordered me to do and not to do, and I have ordered 'Ali  to do and not to do, so he learned what should be done and what should not; therefore. you should listen to his orders so that you may be safe, and you should obey him so that you may be
rightly guided. Do not do what he forbids you from doing so that you may acquire wisdom. Agree with him, and do not let your paths be different from his.
O people! I am al-Sirat al-Mustaqeem (the Straight Path) of Allah whom He commanded you to follow, and it is after me 'Ali then my offspring from his loins, the Imams of Guidance: they guide to the truth and act accordingly.
Then the Prophet recited the entire text of Surat al-Fatiha and commented by saying:
It is in my honor that this (Sura) was revealed, including them (the Imams) specifically; they are the friends of Allah for whom there shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve; truly the Party of Allah are the winners.
Indeed, it is their enemies who are the impudent ones, the deviators, the brethren of Satan; they inspire each other with embellished speech out of their haughtiness.
Indeed, their (Imams') friends are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Great, mentions in His Book saying, "You shall not find a people who believe in Allah
and in the latter Day befriending those who act in opposition to Allah and to His Prophet, even though they may be their own fathers or sons or brothers or kinsfolk; these are they into whose hearts He has impressed conviction" (Qur'an, 58:22). Indeed, their (Imams')
friends are the mu'mins (believers) whom Allah, the Exalted One, the Sublime, describes as: "Those who believe and do not mix up their faith with iniquity, those are the ones who shall have the security, and they are the rightly guided" (Qur'an, 6:82).
Indeed, their friends are those who believed and never doubted. Indeed, their friends are the ones who shall enter Paradise in peace and security; the angels shall receive them with welcome saying, "Peace be upon you! Enter it and reside in it forever!"
Indeed, their friends shall be rewarded with Paradise where they shall be sustained without having to account for anything.
Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall be hurled into the fire.
Indeed, their enemies are the ones who shall hear the exhalation of hell as it increases in intensity, and they shall see it sigh.
Indeed, their enemies are the ones thus described by Allah: "Whenever a nation enters, it shall curse its sister..." (Qur'an, 7:38).
Indeed, their enemies are the ones whom Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, describes thus: "Whenever a group is cast into it, its keepers shall ask them: Did any warner not come to you? They shall say: Yea! Indeed, there came to us a warner but we rejected (him) and said: Allah has not revealed anything; you are only in a great error. And they shall say: Had we but listened or pondered, we would not have been among the
inmates of the burning fire. So they shall acknowledge their sins, but far will be forgiveness) from the inmates of the burning fire" (Qur'an, 67:8-11).
Indeed, their friends are the ones who fear their Lord in the unseen; forgiveness shall be theirs and a great reward.
O people! What a difference it is between the fire and the great reward! .
O people! Our enemy is the one whom Allah censures and curses, whereas our friend is everyone praised and loved by Allah.
O people! I am the Warner (nathir) and' Ali  is the one who brings glad tidings (bashir).
O people! I am the one who warns (munthir) while 'Ali is the guide (hadi).
O people! I am a Prophet (nabi) and' Ali is the successor (wasi).
O people! I am a Messenger (rasul) and' Ali is the Imam and the Wasi after me, and so are the Imams after him from among his offspring. Indeed, I am their father, and they shall descend from his loins.
Indeed, the seal of the lmams from among us is al-Qa'im al-Mehdi. He, indeed, is the one who shall come out so that the creed may prevail. He, indeed, is the one who shall seek revenge against the oppressor. He, indeed, is the one who conquers the forts and demolishes them. He, indeed, is the one who subdues every tribe from among the people of polytheism and the one to guide it.
He is the one who shall seek redress for all friends of Allah. He is the one who supports the religion of Allah. He ever derives (his knowledge) from a very deep ocean. He shall identify each man of distinction by his distinction and every man of ignorance by his
ignorance. He shall be the choicest of Allah's beings and the chosen one. He is the heir of all (branches of) knowledge, the one who encompasses every perception. He conveys on behalf of his Lord, the Exalted and the Sublime, who points out His miracles. He is the wise, the one endowed with wisdom, the one upon whom (Divine) authority is vested.
Glad tidings of him have been conveyed by past generations, yet he is the one who shall remain as a Hujja, and there shall be no Hujja after him nor any right except with him, nor any noor except with him.
None, indeed, shall subdue him, nor shall he ever be vanquished. He is the friend of Allah on His earth, the judge over His creatures, the custodian of what is evident and what is hidden of His.
O people! I have explained (everything) for you and enabled you to comprehend it, and this 'Ali shall after me explain everything to you.
At the conclusion of my khutba, I shall call upon you to shake hands with me to swear your allegiance to him and to recognize his authority, then to shake hands with him after you have shaken hands with me.
I had, indeed, sworn allegiance to Allah, and ‘Ali had sworn allegiance to me, and I on  behalf of Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, I require you to swear the oath of allegiance to him: "Surely those who swear (the oath of) allegiance to you do but swear
allegiance to Allah; the hand of Allah is above their hands; therefore, whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the injury of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward" (Qur'an,48:10).
O people! The pilgrimage (hajj) and the 'umra are among Allah's rituals; "So whoever makes a pilgrimage to the House or pays a visit (to it), there is no blame on him if he goes round them [Safa and Marwa] both" (Qur'an, 2:158).
O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House, for no members of a family went there except that they became wealthy, and receive glad tidings! None failed to do so except that their lineage was cut-off and were impoverished.
O people! No believer stands at the standing place [at 'Arafa] except that Allah forgives his past sins till then; so, once his pilgrimage is over, he resumes his deeds.
O people! Pilgrims are assisted, and their expenses shall be replenished, and Allah never suffers the rewards of the doers of good to be lost.
O people! Perform your pilgrimage to the House by perfecting your religion and by delving into fiqh, and do not leave the sacred places except after having repented and abandoned (the doing of anything prohibited).
O people! Uphold prayers and pay the zakat as Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, commanded you; so, if time lapses and you were short of doing so or you forgot, ' Ali is your wali and he will explain for you.
He is the one whom Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, appointed for you after me as the custodian of Hiscreation. He is from me and I am from him, and he and those who will succeed him from my progeny shall inform you of anything you ask them about, and they
shall clarify whatever you do not know.
Halal and haram things are more than I can count for you now or explain, for a commandment to enjoin what is permissible and a prohibition from what is not permissible are both on the same level, so I was ordered (by my Lord) to take your oath of allegiance and to make a covenant with you to accept what I brought you from Allah, the Exalted One and the Sublime, with regards to' Ali Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to the wasis after him who are from me and from him, a standing Imamate whose seal is al-Mehdi till the Day he meets Allah Who decrees and Who judges.
O people! I never refrained from informing you of everything permissible or prohibitive; so, do remember this and safeguard it and advise each other to do likewise; do not alter it; do not substitute it with something else.
I am now repeating what I have already said: Uphold the prayers and pay the zakat and enjoin righteousness and forbid abomination.
The peak of enjoining righteousness is to resort to my speech and to convey it to whoever did not attend it and to order him on my behalf to accept it and to (likewise) order him not to violate it, for it is an order from Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, and there is no
knowledge of enjoining righteousness nor prohibiting abomination except that it is with a ma'soom Imam.
0 people! The Qur'an informs you that the Imams after him are his (' Ali's) descendants, and I have already informed you that they are from me and from him, for Allah says in His Book, " And he made it a word to continue in his posterity so that they may return " (Qur'an, 43:28) while I have said: "You shall not stray as long as you uphold both of them (simultaneously)."
O people! (Uphold) piety, (uphold) piety, and be forewarned of the Hour as Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, has said, "0 people! Guard (yourselves) against (punishment from) your Lord; surely the violence of the Hour is a grievous thing" (Qur'an, 22:1).
Remember death, resurrection, the judgment, the scales, and the account before the Lord of the Worlds, and (remember) the rewards and the penalty. So whoever does a good deed shall be rewarded for it, and whoever commits a sin shall have no place in the Gardens.
 O people! You are more numerous than (it is practical) to shake hands with me all at the same time, and Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, commanded me to require you to confirm what authority I have vested upon 'Ali  Ameerul-Mo'mineen and to whoever
succeeds him of the Imams from me and from him, since I have just informed you that my offspring are from his loins.
You, therefore, should say in one voice: "We hear, and we obey; we accept and we are bound by what you have conveyed to us from our Lord and yours with regard to our Imam' Ali (V' Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to the Imams, your sons from his loins. We swear the oath of allegiance to you in this regard with our hearts, with our souls, with our tongues, with our hands. According to it shall we live, and according to it shall we die, and according to it shall we be resurrected. We shall not alter anything or substitute anything with another, nor shall we doubt nor deny nor suspect, nor shall we violate our
covenant nor abrogate the pledge. You admonished us on behalf of Allah with regard to' Ali (V' Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to the Imams whom you mentioned to be from your offspring from among his descendants after him: al-Hasan and al-Husain  and to whoever is appointed (as such) by Allah after them. The covenant and the pledge are taken from us, from our hearts, from our souls, from our tongues, from our conscience, from our hands. Whoever does so by his handshake, it shall be so, or otherwise testified to it by his tongue, and we do not seek any substitute for it, nor shall Allah see our souls deviating there from. We shall convey the same on your behalf to anyone near and far of our offspring and families, and we implore Allah to testify to it, and surely Allah suffices as the Witness and you, too, shall testify for us."
O people! What are you going to say?! Allah knows every sound and the innermost of every soul; "Whoever chooses the right guidance, it is for his own soul that he is rightly guided, and whoever strays, it is only to its detriment that he goes astray" (Qur'an, 17:15).
O people! Swear the oath of allegiance to Allah, and swear it to me, and swear it to' Ali  Ameerul-Mo'mineen, and to al-Hasan and al-Husain  and to the Imams from their offspring in the life of this world and in the hereafter, a word that shall always remain so. Allah shall annihilate anyone guilty of treachery and be merciful upon everyone who remains true to his word: "Whoever reneges (from his oath), he reneges only to the
harm of his own soul, and whoever fulfills what he has covenanted with Allah, He will grant him a mighty reward" (Qur'an, 48:10).
O people! Repeat what I have just told you to, and greet' Ali with the title of authority of "Ameerul-Mo'mineen" and say: "We hear, and we obey, O Lord! Your forgiveness (do we seek), and to You is the eventual course" (Qur'an, 2:285), and you should say: "All praise is due to Allah Who guided us to this, and we would not have found the way had it not been for Allah Who guided us" (Qur'an, 7:43).
O people! The merits of' Ali ibn Abu Talib with Allah, the Exalted and the Sublime, the merits which are revealed in the Qur'an, are more numerous than I can recount in one speech; so, whoever informs you of them and defines them for you, you should believe him.
O people! Whoever obeys Allah and His Messenger and' Ali (U and the Imams to whom I have already referred shall attain a great victory. O people! Those foremost from among you who swear allegiance to him and who pledge to obey him and who greet him with the greeting of being the Commander of the Faithful are the ones who shall win the Gardens of Felicity.
O people! Say what brings you the Pleasure of Allah, for if you and all the people of the earth disbelieve, it will not harm Allah in the least.
O Lord! Forgive the believers through what I have conveyed, and let Your Wrath descend upon those who renege, the apostates, and all Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the Worlds.
Thus did the Prophet of Allah speak on behalf of the Almighty Who sent him as the beacon of guidance not only for the Muslims but for all mankind. But the question that forces itself here is: "What happened after that historic event? Why did the Muslims forget, or pretend to have forgotten, their Prophet's instructions with regards to' Ali and "elected" someone else in his stead? To answer this question requires another book,
and indeed many such books have been written. May the Almighty grant all of us guidance, and may He count us among His true servants who recognize the truth when they see it, who abide by His tenets, Who revere His Prophet and follow his instructions in all times, in all climes, Allahomma Ameen.

The following constitutes only major references of the components of Khutba of Ghadeer. In these references the reader can deliberate on the various portions of this historic sermon as quoted in bits and pieces in those references. Most of these references are considered reliable by the majority of Muslims (of the Shi'a or Sunni persuation):
  1. Jalaal ad-Deen al-Sayyuti, Kitaab Al-Itqaan, Vol. 1, p. 31.
  2. al-Majlisi, Bihaar.al-Anwaar, Vol. 21, pp. 360-90, Vol. 37, pp. 111-235, and Vol. 41, p. 228.He Quotes     book al-Ih'tijaj   by al-Tibrisi (vol.2)
  3. Al-Bldaaya wal Nihaaya, Vol. 5, p. 208.
  4. Badee' al-Ma'aani, p. 75
  5. Tareekh Baghdad, V01. 1, p. 411 and V01. 8, p. 290.
  6. Tareekh Dimashq, Vol. 5, p. 210.
  7. Ibn al-Jawziyya, Tadh'kirat al-Khawaas, pp. 18-20.
  8. Ibn al-Sa'ud's Tafseer, Vol. 8, p. 292.
  9. Al-Tibari, Tafseer al-Qur'an, Vol. 3, p. 428 and Vol. 6, p. 46.
  10. al-Fakhr al-Razi, Al-Tafseer al-Kabeer, Vol. 3, p. 636.
  11. Al-Tamhid fi USool al-Deen, p. 171.
  12. Tayseer al-Wusul, Vol. 1, p. 122.
  13. Ghiyaath ad-Din ibn Hammaam, Tareekh Habib al-Siyar, V01. 1, p. 144.
  14. al-Maqrizi, Khutat, p. 223.
  15. al-Sayyuti, Al-Durr al-Manthur, Vol. 2, pp. 259, 298.
  16. Thakhaa'ir al-'Uqba, p. 68.
  17. Ruh al-Ma'aani, Vol. 2, p. 348.
  18. Mohibb al-Tabal-;, AI.Riyadh al-r:adhirah, Vol. 2, p.169.
  19. Al-Siraaj al-Munir, Vol. 4, p. 364.
  20. al-Hakim, Al-Seera al-Halabiyya, Vol. 3, p. 302.
  21. Shar'h al-Mawaahib, V01. 7, p. 13.
  22. Ibn Hajar al-' Asqalaani, Al-Sawaa'iq al-Muhriqa, p. 26.
  23. Ibn al-Badriq, Al-'Umda, p. 52.
  24. Badr ad-Deen, 'Umdat al-Qari fi Shar'h al-Bukhari, V01. 8, p. 584.
  25. al-Ghadeer, V01. 2, p. 57.
  26. Sharafud-Deen al-Musawi, AI-Fusul al-Muhimma, pp. 25-27.
  27. Fadha 'il al-Sahaaba, p. 272.
  28. Faydh al-Ghadeer, V01. 6, p. 218.
  29. Kashf al-Ghumma, p. 94.
  30. Kifaayat al- Taalib, pp. 17, 28.
  31. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Kanz al-'Ummaal, Vol. 6, p. 397.
  32. Imam Ibn Hanbal, Mus'nad, V01. 4, p. 281.
  33. Mishkaat al-Masabeeh, p. 272.
  34. Mushkil al-aathaar, Vol. 3, p. 196.
  35. Mataalib al-Su'ul, p. 16.
  36. Muftah al-Najaat, p. 216.
  37. al-Shahristaani, AI-Milal wal Nihal, V 01. 1, p. 220.
  38. al-Khawarizmi, Manaaqib, pp. 80, 94.
  39. Ibn al-Maghaazli, Manaaqib, p. 232.
  40. al-Qastalani, Al-Mawaahib, Vol. 2, p. 13.
  41. al-Samhudi, Wafaa' al-Wafaa', Vol. 2, p. 173.
  42. al-Qanduzi, Yanabi al-Mawadda, p. 120.

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