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The Sermon of Mina

- Hazrat Imam Hussein (a.s) (his last stay at Mina)
O people, take lesson from the counsel God gave to His friends when He rebuked the rabbis by saying: "Why do the scholars and rabbis not forbid their sinful talk and consumption of what is unlawful ? Truly what they have done is evil." (5:63)
And God says: "Cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary are those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved on account of their rebellion and transgression. They did not prevent each other from committing vile and corrupt acts; surely what they did was abominable" (5:78-79).
God reproached them because they saw with their own eyes the oppressors committing vile and corrupt acts, but did not stop them, out of love for the favours they received from them as well as fear of persecution and injury. However, God says: "Fear not men, but fear Me." (5:44) And He says: "The believing men and women are friends and protectors to each other; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil; they perform the prayer, and pay the alms, and obey God and His messenger. Upon them God shall have mercy; God is Almighty, All-wise." (9:71)
God mentions the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil (al- 'amr bi al-ma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar) before all other duties, because He knows that if it is performed and is established in the society all other duties, the easy and the difficult, will also become established. The reason for this is that al-'amr bi al ma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar means summoning people to Islam, as well as resistance against injustice, opposing and struggling against oppressors, and endeavoring to ensure that public wealth and income derived from war are distributed in accordance with the just laws of Islam, and that taxes are collected, levied and expended in due and proper form.
O scholars, who are celebrated and enjoy good repute on account of your learning! You have achieved a good name in society because of your good will. It is on account of God that men venerate you and stand in awe of you, so that even powerful fear you and the weak honor you, and those who are not subject to you and over whom you hold no authority grant you favors they deny themselves . When the people do not receive their due. they seek your intercession, and you walk in the street with the majesty of kings and princes.
Have you not earned all this respect and prestige because of the people's hopes that you will implement God's laws, even though in most instances you have failed to do so?
You have taken lightly your duties as leaders. You have neglected the rights of the oppressed and the lowly, but have assiduously pursued what you regard as your personal rights. You have not spent your money or risked your life for the sake of the One Who gave you life, nor have you fought against any group or tribe for the sake of God. Nevertheless, you desire - and regard it as your due - that He should grant you paradise, the company of the prophet, and security from chastisement in the hereafter. You have such expectations of God, I fear that the full weight of His wrath descend upon you, for although it is by His might and glory that you have achieved high rank, you show no respect to those who truly know god, while you yourselves enjoy respect among God's creatures on His account.
(I am also afraid for you for another reason:) you see the covenant enacted with God being violated and trampled under foot, yet you show no anxiety, when it comes to the covenants enacted with your fathers, you become greatly disturbed and anxious if they are only violated in part, but the pledges you have given to the most noble Messenger are a matter of complete indifference to you.
The blind, the dumb, and chronically ill everywhere lack protection in towns and no mercy is shown them. But you neither behave in accordance with your function and rank, nor you support or pay any regard to those who do. You purchase your safety from the oppressive ruling powers with flattery cajolery, and compromise.
All these activities have been forbidden you by God, and He has, more over, command you to forbid each other to engage in them, but you pay no attention.
The calamity that has befallen you is greater than what has befallen others, for true rank and degree of "Ulama" has been taken away from you. The administration of the country and the issuing of decrees and ordinances should actually be trusted to religious scholars who are guardians of God's ordinances concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden. But your position has been usurped from you, for no other reason than that you have abandoned the truth (al-haqq), and have disagreed about the nature of the sunnah, despite the existence of clear proofs.
Had you the forbearance to endure adversities and hardships for the sake of God, then all proposed regulations (God's affairs) would be brought to you for your approval and for you to issue; authority would lie in your hands. But you allowed the oppressors to take away your functions and God's affairs (i.e. government) to fall into their hands, so that they administer them by resorting to ambiguities and make arbitrariness and the satisfaction of lust their consistent practice. What enabled them to gain control of government was your fleeing in panic from (inevitable) death and your love of life, which shall in all certainty depart from you. As a consequence of that mentality, you have delivered the powerless masses into the clutches of the oppressors. While some cringe like slaves under the yoke of oppressors, and others have been reduced to destitution in regard to their livelihood, the rulers run the affairs of the government in accordance with their whims, earning ignominy and disgrace for themselves with their licentiousness, following evil counselors, and showing impudence toward God. One of their appointed spokesmen mounts the pulpit (minbar) in each city. The country is defenseless before them, and their hands grab freely whatever they want of it. The people are their slaves and are powerless to defend themselves. One of the governors is a dictator by nature, malevolent and rancorous; another represses to recognize either God or the Day of Resurrection! It is not strange - how can one think it strange, that society is the clutches of a cunning oppressor whose tax collectors are oppressors and whose governors feel no compassion or mercy towards the believers under rule.
It is God who will judge concerning what is dispute among us and deliver a decisive verdict concerning all that occurs among us.
O God! You know that everything we did was not prompted by rivalry for political power, nor for a search for wealth and abundance; rather it was done to demonstrate to men the shining principles and values of Your religion, to reform the affairs of Your land, to protect and secure the indisputable rights of Your oppressed servants, and to act in accordance with the duties You have established and the norms, laws, and ordinances You have decreed.
So (O scholars of religion!) You are to help us reach this goal, win back our rights from those powers who have considered it acceptable to wrong you and who have attempted to put out the light kindled by your Prophet. God suffices us, upon Him do we rely, to Him do we return, and to Him shall we return.

Encounter with Waleed and Marwan

After Muawiyah’s death Yazid wrote a letter to Waleed-the governor of medina, "Now then! Ask for the oath of allegiance from Husain, Abdullah bin Umar and Abdullah bin Zubayr, and do not give them respite until they do so." 
Waleed called for Abdullah bin Umro bin Usman, who was just a lad, to summon Imam Husain (a.s.) and Abdullah bin Zubayr to meet him. It was a time when Waleed usually did not meet anyone. Abdullah bin Umro saw them seated in the Mosque and conveyed Waleed's message to meet them. They told him to go back and that they would soon follow him. Abdullah bin Zubayr turned towards Imam Hussein (a.s.) and said, "In your opinion what is the reason for Waleed to call us to meet him at this unusual hour"? Imam re­plied, "I presume that their leader of rebels has died and he has called us to swear the oath of allegiance to Yazid before the news spreads among other people." Abdullah too consented to it and asked as to what he would do. Imam replied that he would go to meet Waleed accompanied by some youths. (Irshad)
  Then he called for a group from among his relatives and said,
  "Lift up your arms, for Waleed has called me at this hour and might force me to do that which I detest. I do not trust him, thus remain with me. When I go inside to meet him, you all sit at the door, and when you hear my voice raised, barge inside to defend me."
  When Imam came to Waleed, he saw marwan sitting with him. Waleed gave the news of the death of Mu'awiyah to Imam Husain (a.s.), and he recited: "Verily we are Allah's and verily unto Him shall we return." Then Waleed read the letter of Yazid and his order to get the pledge of allegiance for him. Imam replied, 
"I understand that you shall not agree if I swear the oath of allegiance in secrecy and privately until and unless I do so pub­licly so that people may be informed about it."
  Waleed replied in the affirmative. Imam Hussein said,
  "In that case wait until dawn."
  Waleed replied, "As you desire. You may go in Allah's refuge, until you come to me with the people." marwan said, "If Husain goes away from your midst without swearing the oath of allegiance, you will never have the power to ask the allegiance again until much bloodshed between him and you. Hence imprison him till he swears the oath of allegiance, or else cut off his head." Imam Hussein (a.s.) arose and said,
  "O son of Zarqa! Will you dare to kill me? Verily you have lied and have sinned."
  Saying this Imam Hussein came outside and returned back with his men to his house.
 Discourse at Prophet’s Grave
It is said that one night (before departure) Imam Hussein (a.s.) stepped out of his house and went to the head of the grave of his Grandfather and said. 
"Salutations be upon you O Prophet of Allah! I am Hussein the son of Fatima (a.s.). I am your beloved and the child of your beloved. I am your son whom you have left as your heir among your ummah. Thus O Prophet of Allah! Be a witness that these people have deserted me and neglected me while refusing to protect me. This is my complaint to you until I come to your presence."  
Then he arose and started reciting the Prayers, constantly bowing and pros­trating. Waleed went to his house to inquire whether the Imam had left Madina of no. When he saw that the Imam was not there he said, "Thanks to Allah that he has left and I have been saved from being indicted and in­volved in spilling his blood." Then Imam returned back to his home and on the second night he again went to the grave of the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.) and recited some units of Prayers. After finishing the Prayers he said,  
"O Allah! This is the grave of Your Prophet, and I am the grandson of Your Prophet. You are aware as to what has befallen me. Verily I cherish virtue and righteousness and abhor evil. O Lord of Glory and Honor! I adjure You by the right of this grave and the one who is buried therein, to bring forth for me that which is approved by You and Your Prophet." 
Imam con­tinued weeping until the morning, then he placed his head on the grave and slept for a short time. He dreamt that the Prophet (s.a.w.s.), surrounded by the Angels from the left, right and front, coming towards him. The Prophet came near and pressed Imam Husain (a.s.)'s head to his chest. Then he kissed him between his eyes and said, 
"O my beloved Husain! It is as if I see you smeared in blood at the place of grief and trials, and a group from among my people have beheaded you, and you are thirsty while they do not quench your thirst. Inspite of this they desire my intercession (on the day of Qiyamah). May Allah keep them away from my intercession. O my beloved Husain! Your Father, Mother and Brother have come to me and they are desirous of meeting you. And you have acquired such a lofty position in Paradise, that unless you attain Martyrdom you shall not get there."
Imam looked at his Grandfather and said, 
"O Grandfather! I do not desire to return back to this world. Please take me alongwith you and enter me into your grave."
 The Prophet replied, 
"You should return back (towards the world) and attain Martyrdom, and thus gain whatever great rewards Allah has reserved for you. For on the day of Qiyamah, you, your Father, your Uncle and Yours Father's Uncle shall arise as a distinguished group until you all enter Paradise."

Imam’s Will to Mohammed-e-Hanafia

When Imam was departing , Mohammad ibne Hanafiyah came to him and said, "O dear brother! You are most dear and beloved to me than anyone else. And I will not refuse to advise anyone except you, being most worthy of it, for you are from me, and are my life, my spirit and my eyes and the elder of my family. Your obedience is obligatory upon me for Allah has exalted you over me and has chosen you as the Master of the Youth of Paradise." Then he recited the entire Tradition narrated by the Prophet (s.a.w.s.) viz.  "Hasan and Husain are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise."
Then he said, "I desire that you go to Makkah, if you find peace, stay there, and if the matter turns out to be different, then go to Yemen, for the people therein are among the helpers and followers of your Grandfather and Father. And they are the most kind-hearted and merciful among men, while their towns and cities are vast. Then if you can hault there, do so, if not, then seek shelter in the deserts and mountain-caves and go from one town to the other until you witness the state of affairs of people, and may Allah judge between us and the group these of evil-doers."  
Imam Hussein (a.s.) replied,  
"O brother! Although there is no place left in this world for sheltering me, I shall never ever swear the oath of alle­giance to Yazid."  
Hearing this Mohammad ibne Hanafiyah concluded his speech and started weeping and the Imam too wept. Then he said,  
"O Brother! May Allah reward you favorably, for you have advised me and have opined righteously. As regards yourself O dear brother! You may stay behind in Madina and be alert and keep informing me about the affairs of the enemies."  
Then Imam Husain (a.s.) asked for paper and pen and wrote the following recommendation for his brother Mohammad bin Hanafiyah: 
"In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. This contains that which has been willed by Husain bin Ali bin Abi Talib to his brother Mohammad re­nowned as Ibne Hanafiyah. Verily Husain bears witness that there is no Lord except Allah Alone. And bears witness that Mohammad (s.a.w.s.) is the Slave and the Messenger of Allah, who has been righteously chosen by Him. And that Paradise and hell are truth, and without doubt the day of Qiyamah will come. And Allah will arise all those who are buried inside their graves. I have not risen to spread evil or to show off, nor for spreading immorality or oppression. But I have left for the betterment of the ummah of my Grand­father and I desire to propagate the Religion and forbid against evil, thus following the foot-steps of my Grandfather and Father Ali bin Abi Talib (a.s.). Thus the one who accepts truth through me, will have received truth from Allah, while the one who betrays me, I shall forebear until Allah judges between myself and the oppressive creed and verily Allah is the Best Judge. This is the testimony to you from me O brother. And my favour is with Allah alone on Whom (alone) I rely, and unto Him (alone) do I return."
Imam Husayn(a.s) and Hazrat Umme Salma
Grandmother! I know that I have to aet martyred unjustly and oppressively, divine decree is such that, my household be taken as captives door to door, my children be slaughtered, they be made prisoners'and no one be the hearer of their appeals when they implore, in this itself is the remains and life of religion.
Grandmother! If I do not go today then I will go tomorrow and if I do not go tomorrow then I will have to go the day after tomorrow - there is no refuge from death, I know that day and hour too when I have to get killed, and also know that place where I have to get buried. As if I am seeing that place and if you like I can also show you the place, saying this he showed her the place and lifted a handful of soil and gave it to Umme Salmah, as when this soil turns into a fresh blood, then know that your Husayn (a.s.) has been martyred. (Maqtal Awaalim, page 27.)
 Discourse with the army of genie 
Numerous groups of Muslim genie came to Imam Hussein (a.s.) and said, "O our Master! We are your adherents and helpers thus we shall fulfill your command, whatever it be. If you desire we will hault here and slay all your enemies." Imam replied, 
"May Allah reward you with goodness! Haven't you read the Qur'an which was revealed to my Grandfather, wherein is stated: 
"Wherever you be, death will overtake you, even if you be in towers (strong and) lofty."
 And it is stated, 
"Those for whom slaugh­ter was ordained would certainly have gone forth to the places where they (now) lie (slain)." 
Then if I remain in this place, how would this unfortunate nation be tested and tried? And who will lay in my grave in Karbala. (On the day) When Allah the Glorious spread the earth, He chose that land for me. And has made it a place of refuge for my followers (Shi'ah) so that they might find peace there under in this world as well as the hereafter. Come to me on Saturday, for I shall be martyred in the end of the week on the tenth. No one from among my family, friends, brothers and relatives will remain alive after my death, my head will then be taken to Yazid." 
The genie said, "O friend of Allah! And O the son of the friend of Allah! If the obedience of your orders would not have been obligatory on us and killing would not have been unlawful, we would surely have killed all your enemies before they reach you." Imam replied,
 "By Allah! We are competent enough to kill them than you. But the intention is that one should be killed with (presenting valid) proofs and reasons, and should be guided with proofs and reasons." 
In other words, the Imam did not wish that they be destroyed before submitting his proofs unto them. (Here ends that which has been quoted in the book of Mohammad bin Abi Talib)
Conversation of Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari with Imam Husain (a.s.)
 Sayyed Bahrani in Madinatul Ma'ajiz quotes from Saqibul Manaqib, and others quote from Manaqibus Sua'da that Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari says, that when Imam Husain (a.s.) intended going towards Iraq, I came to his presence and said, "You are the son of the Prophet of Allah and one of his two endeared grand children. I do not hold any other opinion except that you too enter into a peace-treaty (with Yazid) as your brother had done with Mu'awiyah, and verily he was trustworthy and rightly guided." Imam Husain replied, 
"O Jabir! Whatever my brother did was ordained by Allah and the Prophet, and whatever I shall do too shall be according to the command of Allah and His Prophet. Do you wish that at this very moment I invite the Holy Prophet, Imam Ali, and my brother Hasan to testify regarding my action"? 
Then Imam looked towards the heavens, suddenly I saw that the doors of heavens opened ajar and Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.s.), Imam Ali (a.s.), Imam Hasan (a.s.), Hazrat Hamza (a.s.), Hazrat Ja'far at Tayyar (a.s.) and (my uncle) Zaid descended from the heavens upon the earth. Seeing this I became frightful, when the Prophet said, 
"O Jabir! Did not I inform you prior to Husain during the time of Hasan, that you would not become a believer unless you surrendered to the Imams and not object to their actions? Do you desire to see the place where Mu'awiyah will dwell and the place of my son Husain and of his murderer Yazid"? 
I replied in the affirmative. Then the Prophet struck his foot onto the ground and it tore apart and another ground ap­peared beneath. Then I saw a river flowing, which also tore apart, under­neath which was another ground. Thus seven layers of the ground and rivers ripped apart (one below the other) until there appeared hell. I saw that Waleed bin Mughirah, Abu Jahl, Mu'awiyah and Yazid were bound together in a chain alongwith the other rebellious Satans. And their torment was more severe than that of the other people of hell. Then the Holy Prophet com­manded me to lift my head. I saw that the heavens had opened their doors and Paradise was apparent. Then all those blessed people who had descended from there returned back. When they were in the air the Prophet called out to Imam Husain, 
"Come and mingle with me my dear Husain." 
I saw that Husain ascended too and joined them onto the high status in Paradise. The Holy Prophet then caught hold of the hand of Husain and told me,
 "O Jabir! This son of mine is here alongwith me, submit to him and do not fall in doubt so as to become a believer." 
Jabir says that, "May both my eyes turn blind if whatever I have seen and related from the Prophet is false."

Imam’s Letter in Reply to Kufi’s pleading letters

Imam Husain (a.s.) sent the following reply with Hani bin Hani Sabee'i and Sa'eed bin Abdullah Hanafi, who were the last messengers (from Kufa):
"In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merci­ful. From Husain bin Ali to the noblemen among the Muslims and believers. Now then! Hani and Sa'eed have brought me your letters, they being your last messengers. I have realized your opinions through them and your judge­ment is that: There is no Imam over us. You come towards us, perhaps Allah will unite us through you upon the truth and righteousness. I send to you my cousin, my brother and a trustworthy person from among my family Muslim bin Aqeel. And I have instructed him to inquire about your affairs and write to me regarding it. And if he writes to me that your elders, the wise and the learned men hold the same opinion as your messengers have conveyed to me and as written in your letters, then I shall come to you quickly, Allah willing. I swear by my life, that he is not an Imam and guide except he who judges in accordance to the Book of Allah, and establishes justice, and professes the True Religion and dedicates himself to the will of Almighty Allah. Greetings."

Imam’s Letter to the nobleman of Basra

"Mu'awiyah has died, and we do not grieve nor regret his death, because the doors of injustice and tyranny have cracked and the pillars of oppression have been given a severe blow. He has made innova­tions in the form of (demanding) allegiance for his son (Yazid) and he was adamant about it, when how far from right is it what he had decided. He endeavoured but was weakened and he asked for counsel and opinion from his friends, but they betrayed him. Then his son Yazid who drinks wine and is wicked has arisen and has claimed to be the Caliph of the Muslims. He rules over them without their consent in spite of being an ignorant and foolish man, he cannot even recognise his own footsteps. I swear by Allah, that fighting Yazid is more worthy than fighting with the polytheists. And this is Husain bin Ali, the grandson of Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.s.). He is of genuine dignity, an honest counsellor, a great intellectual, and is more worthy and rightful for the Caliphate. For he is an antecedent among the emigrants, a senior, and foremost in Religion, he is attached in proximity to the Prophet. He is affectionate towards the young and sympathetic to­wards the elders while being kind to others. He is a thorough Leader, and Paradise is attained through his medium, while he propagates through preaching and counsel. Hence do not close your eyes against the Light of Truth and do not fall into the pit of falsehood. Sakhr bin Qays misled you on the day of (the battle of) Jamal and disgraced you, hence wash off the stains of disgrace from yourselves by assisting the grandson of the Proph­et. By Allah! None will withhold their hands from assisting him except that their progeny will be humiliated, deprived and abandoned. I have now worn the helmet for the battle and have fastened the armour. For the one who is not killed will ultimately die, and the one who flees from it will not escape it. Thus answer me well, may Allah's blessings be upon you."

Imam’s other letter to the five divisions nobleman of Basra

Imam Husain (a.s.) wrote a similar letter to the noblemen of the five divisions of Basra and their chiefs through his retainer named Sulayman. The letters with similar contents were addressed to Malik bin Musme' Bakri, Ahnaf bin Qays, Manzar bin Jarood, Mas'ood bin Umro, Qays bin Haysam and Umar bin Abdullah bin Mu'ammar. 
"Now then! Verily Allah has chosen Prophet Mohammad (s.a.w.s.) above all His creatures and granted him (the prestige of) Prophethood and chose him for the Apostleship. Then the Almighty took him towards His mercy (death) after the Prophet having guided all people towards the truth, and after having propagated the message for which he was sent. Thus we are his Household (Ahlulbayt), friends, vicegerents and his successors and are more worthy of succeeding him than anyone else. Then the nation has tried to precede us in this matter and we helplessly withdrew to avoid dissentions. We cherish peace although we consider ourselves more worthy and deserving of it (Caliphate) than them. I have sent towards you my messenger and I invite you to the Book of Allah and the tradition (sunnah) of the Prophet, for I see that the traditions (sunnah) have been destroyed and innovations have crept up. Hence if you pay heed to my words and obey my command, then I shall guide you to the Righteous path. And peace be upon you and Allah's blessings and mercy."
Imam’s Sermon when proceeding towards Iraq from Makkah
When Imam Husain (a.s.) intended going towards Iraq, he stood up and delivered the following sermon:  
"Praise be to Allah! By Allah's will only! There is no power but with Allah! And Blessings of Allah be upon His Messenger! Verily death is bound with the sons of Adam as a necklace around the neck of a maiden. How I desire and long to meet my Ancestors similar to (Prophet) Ya'qoob (a.s.), who was desirous of meeting (Prophet) Yusuf (a.s.). Verily I proceed to­wards the place of my martyrdom, which has been selected for me. It is as if I see the wolves of the desert (of Bani Umayyah) seperating each part of my body between Nawawees and Karbala, and filling their empty bellies and utricles. There is no escape from that which has been written down by the pen of destiny, and the pleasure of our Household (Ahlulbayt) lies in the pleasure of Allah. Verily we will endure His trials and secure the reward due for the forbearing ones. The cord of the Prophet and his child cannot be separated from him, but will all be united together with him near the Right (Allah). Thereby his (the Prophet's) eyes will be cooled due to us and thus Allah will fulfil what He has promised through them. Then whoever desires to lay down his life for us and strive in the way of Allah, should come out with us, for I shall be leaving tomorrow morning, Allah willing."
Letter of Imam to Muslim ibn Aqeel through Qais
"In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful. From Husain bin Ali to his believer and Muslim brothers. I praise Allah Almighty, besides Whom there is no other Deity. Now then! I have received the letter from Muslim bin Aqeel, inform­ing me regarding the fairness of your intentions and the compliance of your noblemen to assist us and seek our rights. I invoke Allah, the Honour­able, the Glorified, that we may face fairness and reward you with the greatest reward. I have left Makkah on Tuesday, the eighth of Zilhaj, the day of Tarwiyyah. When my messenger reaches you, speeden up your task and prepare yourselves that I shall reach you within some days. Peace be upon you and Allah's Mercy and His Blessings"
Imam Hussain’s Sermon to Hurr and his Companions
Imam Husain (a.s.) delivered a sermon at Bayzah amidst his companions and that of Hurr's. He praised and glorified Allah and said,
"O people! The Prophet has said, that when you see an oppressive ruler legitimising that which has been prohibited by Allah and breaking His covenant, and opposing the cus­toms of the Prophet, and he behaves unjustly and oppressively with Allah's servants, then if a person does not oppose him through his word or deed, it is incumbent upon Allah to place that person on the status of that oppres­sor. Beware that these statesmen (of Bani Umayyah) have adhered to the commands of shaitan and disobeyed the orders of Allah, and have made corruption the custom of the day. They have gathered the rights at one place and have reserved the treasury of Muslims (Baytul Mal) for them­selves, and permitted the prohibitions of Allah and forbade that which is allowed by Him. I am more worthy among all the men to stop and oppose them. You sent your letters to me, and your messengers too, saying that you have taken the oath of fealthy to me and promised that you would not hand me over to my enemies nor forsake me. Then if you (still) persist on your allegiance, then you are on the right. I am Hussein, the son of Ali and Fatima the daughter of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.). My life is asso­ciated with you and my family with yours, and you should be sympathetic towards me. And if you do not do so and have committed breach of trust, while having taken off the pledge of allegiance from your necks, then I swear by my life, that this is nothing new from you. You have done the same with my father, brother and cousin Muslim (bin Aqeel), the one who falls prey to your deception turns helpless. You have let go your share from your hands and have toppled up your fortunes. The one who committed breach of trust shall himself face deceit, and very soon Allah will make me independ­ent of you. Peace be upon you and Allah's Mercy and Abundance."  
Uqbah bin Abu Eizar says, that Imam Husain (a.s.) haulted at Zee Hasam, and after praising and glorifying Allah said,  
"Now then! You have seen what unrighteousness has come forth. The world has changed colour and has shown unacquaintance. It's righteousness has parted and this has continued until the remnants of good in it amounts to the thin sediment at the bottom of a drinking utensil. And life is degraded like the grazing ground of death. Do you not see that truth is not being practiced and wrong not being discouraged? The righteous believer is the one who aspirers towards righteousness. I alone consider death to be a prosperity, while living with the oppressors is nothing but undesirable."
Imam’s encounter with Hurr ibn Yazid Riyahi
When the time of Asr came, Imam commanded his companions to ready them­selves to leave and they conceded. Then he commended his muezzin to say the Azan and Iqamah, which he did. Imam was again urged to lead the Prayers, which he did. He recited the salutations and turned towards them. He praised and glorified Allah and said,  
"Now then! O people! If you fear Allah and you recognize the dues of the rightful, Allah will be pleased with you. And we are the Household of Mohammad (s.a.w.s.), and hold more authority upon this matter (the Caliphate) than those who claim it. They have sown the seeds of oppression and enmity amongst you. Then if you despise us and do not recognize our rights, and if your opinions are averse to what you had written to me in your letters and conveyed to me through your messengers, then I shall go away from you."  
Hurr replied, "By Allah! I do not not anything regarding the letters nor the messengers as you say." Then Imam called out to one of his companions and said,  
"O Utba bin Sam'an! Bring to me the two saddle-bags containing their letters."  
He brought the bag full of letters and scattered the letters in front of them. Hurr said, "We are not of those who had written to you. We have been commanded not to part with you as soon as we find you, and then to take you to Kufa to the presence of Ubaydullah bin Ziyad." Imam replied,
"Verily death is nearer to you than this."
Then he directed his companions to mount and they complied. When they started proceeding, Hurr stopped their way to which Imam said,  
"O Hurr! May your mother mourn over your death, what do you intend"?  
Hurr replied, "If anyone else among the Arabs had said this in the same position as you are, I would have answered him equally, whoever he might be, but I cannot utter the name of your mother, except with fairness." Imam said,  
"Then what do you desire"?  
Hurr said, "I desire to take you to the commander Ubaydullah." Imam said,  
"By Allah! I shall not do so."  
Hurr said, "By Allah! I too shall not leave you." They repeated this thrice, and when their conversation got heated, Hurr said, "I have not been commanded to fight with you. I have been ordered to remain with you until I take you to Kufa. Then now when you refuse to go to Kufa, take a way, which does not go to Kufa nor Madina, while this being a compromise between us. Then I shall write a letter to the commander and you write to Yazid or Ubaydullah, and Allah should bring forth fairness, so that I may not be entangled in your matter." Imam turned his horse towards Qadsiyah and Uzayb towards the left, and Hurr and his followers travelled by their side.
Imam’s words with Ali ibn Hussain (Ali Akbar) on his way to Kufa
Uqbah bin Sam'an says, that we went along with the Imam and he took a short nap on the horse's back. Then he woke up and uttered the words:  
"Verily we are Allah's and verily unto Him shall we return. Praise be to Allah, the Lord of the worlds."  
Then he repeated it twice or thrice. His son Ali bin Husain (a.s.), who was riding a horse, came up to him and asked, "Why did you (suddenly) praise Allah and utter the words of "returning to Him"? Imam replied,
"O my dear son! Sleep overtook me, and I saw a rider come up to me from behind and said: These people are proceeding further, while death is advancing towards them. I perceived that they were our spirits informing us of our death."  
Ali bin Husain said, "O dear father! May your Lord not bring forth evil! Are we not on the right"? Imam replied,  
"Why not, by Him towards Whom all servants return."  
Then Ali said, "Then we do not fear, for we shall die on the right." Imam said,  
"May Allah reward you abundantly, the reward which is due from a father to his son."
His encounter with Ubaydullah bin Hurr Johfi
Shaikh Sadooq in his Amaali, relates from Imam Ja'far as Sadiq (a.s.) that when Imam Husain (a.s.) reached Qatqataniyah, he saw a tent pitched and inquired as to whose tent it was. People replied that it was of Abdullah bin Hurr Hanafi (while the correct name is Ubaydullah bin Hurr Jo'fi). Imam sent a messenger to him saying,  
"You are an evil and guilty person. Allah shall call you to account for whatever you have done. Then if you now turn back to Allah and assist me, my Grandfather will intercede for you in the audience of Allah."  
He replied, "O son of the Prophet of Allah! If I come to assist you, I shall be one of the first persons to sacrifice my life in front of you. You may take my horse. I have never attended to any work seated on it, except that I have attained what I desired, and no one has ever reached me except that it has saved me, hence I present it to you, so take it." Hearing this Imam turned his face away from him and said,  
"Neither do I need you nor your horse. I do not desire to enter misled people into my ranks. Run away from here and do not side with us or against us, for the one who listens to the cry of us, the Household (Ahlulbayt), and does not hasten to assist us, Allah shall throw him head-long into the fire of hell."

Imam’s Last Letter to the Chief’s of Kufa.

Though there was little hope left from kufa and kufians, Imam Husayn (a.s) decided to make a last attempt and fulfill his obligation. He wrote”
“In the name of God, the Merciful, the compassionate: Abdullah and all other believers. Friends! You know the words of my grandfather, the Prophet (s) , who said  ‘When people see a tyrant breaking the limits of the Almightily, permitting what He has forbidden, acting against the Sunnah of the Messenger and ruling over the people with tyranny and sinfulness and oppressing them, and still they continue to keep their silence and do not take any step to stop him, then God will drive them towards the place why they rightly deserve (Hellfire). My Friends! You know that the Bani Umayyah is a Satanic and they disobey the commands of God. You know what corruption they have publicized of earth and to what extent they have suspended the law of the Almighty, permitting what he has forbidden and forbidding that which he has allowed.

My friends, You know that I, more than anybody else deserve the right of khilafat and only under the justice it is possible to be delivered of oppressing and exploitation.
O people of Kufa! It was you who wrote the large number of letters and sent so many messengers. It was you who had sent all those invitations and gave hope-raising promises. Now I have answered your call and come towards you. If you have remained faithful to your promise, then you have taken your own share from life and taken the right road to felicity and deliverance from tyranny and oppression. If, however you are now ashamed and regretful, having broken your covenant, then it is not something new and not without precedent; since it was you who have similarly treated my father and brother in the past, and laterly my cousin. If that is so, then you have ruined your lives with your own hands and closed all doors to eve lasting felicity!
Know that God has always been my protector and Helper, and it is not I who is in need of you. Wassalam.”

Imam’s word’s on reaching Karbala

Imam Hussain entered Karbala on the second of Moharram 61 A.H. Then he turned towards his companions and said,  
"People are the slaves of this world and Religion is only a lip-service for them, and they will take care of it until it is pleasurable, and when the crucible of trials approaches, only a few religious ones remain."  
Then he asked,  
"Is this place Karbala"?  
The people replied in the affirma­tive. He said,  
"This is the place of grief and trials and this is the place of the resting of our Camels, our haulting place, station of our martyrdom and where our blood shall be spilled."
Ubaydullah bin Ziyad's letter to Imam and his reply.
"Now then O Husain! I have been informed that you have haulted at Karbala. Yazid has written to me not to recline my head on the bed and not be sati­ated until I send you to Allah, or you submit yourself to me and Yazid bin Mu'awiyah. Greetings."  
When his letter reached Imam Husain (a.s.), he read it and threw it away saying,  
"The one who seeks the pleasure of people against the displeasure of Allah can never succeed."  
The messenger asked him the reply for the letter, to which Imam said,  
"He has no reply, but has the wrath (of Allah)."

Imam’s proposal to Umar ibn Saad

Tabari) Imam Husain (a.s.) sent Umro bin Qartah Ansari to Umar bin Sa'ad saying, "Come to meet me tonight between the two armies." Umar came with twenty horsemen, while Imam too went accompanied with the same amount of men. When they reached face to face, Imam told his companions to move far away and Umar too ordered his companions to do so. Both the groups moved away and they started talking to one another until one part of the night passed away. Then they returned back to their armies and no one knew as to what was discussed between them. But the sane ones said that the Imam told Umar bin Sa'ad, "Accompany me in revolting against Yazid and leave his ranks." Umar replied, "My house shall be destroyed (if I do so)." Imam said,  
"I shall build it (back) for you."  
He said, "My properties shall be confiscated", and Imam said,  
"I shall give you better than that from my property in Hijaz."  
But Umar was not pleased by it.

 Imam’s Sermon to his companions on the Night of Ashoor

(Irshad) Imam Husain (a.s.) gathered his companions at night. Imam Ali Zainul Abedeen (a.s.) says that: I went closer to them so as to hear what they said, and at that time I was unwell. I heard Imam telling his compan­ions that,  
"I glorify Allah with the best glorification, and praise him in times of prosperity as well as misfortunes. O Allah! I praise You that You have likened Prophet hood to be bestowed in our family, You taught us the Qur'an thus making us intellectuals in Religion, and conferred upon us the faculty of hearing and foresight and an enlightened heart. Thus enter us among the fold of your grateful servants. Now then! I have not known any companion who are more faithful and devout than you, nor have I known any family who is more considerate, affectionate, favourable, and amiable than my family. Thus may Allah reward you well on my behalf. And I presume that the enemy will not spare even a single day, and I permit all of you to go away freely while I validate this for you. I lift up from you the re­sponsibility of the allegiance and oath (which you have sweared at my hands). The darkness of the night has enveloped you, thus free yourself from the whirlpool (hiding) in the waves of darkness. Then each of you may catch hold of the hand of each of my family members and disperse into the villages and cities, until Allah bestows relief upon you. For these people desire me only, and after having laid their hands upon me, they shall not pursue anyone else."
  Hearing this his brothers, sons, nephews and the sons of Abdullah bin Ja'far said, "We shall never do this so as to remain alive after you. May Allah never cause this to happen." Hazrat Abbas bin Ali (a.s.) preceded in the declaration and others followed suit.
  Then Imam turned towards the sons of Aqeel bin Abi Talib and said,
"The sacrifice of Muslim is sufficient for you, hence I permit you to go away."
 They replied, "Glory be to Allah! What will the people say? They will say that we have forsaken our chief, master and a cousin who was a best cousin. And that we did not shoot arrows alongside him, thrust spears and did not strike our swords besides him, and we would not know what to do (regarding this accusation). By Allah! We shall never ever do this. In fact we shall sacrifice our lives, wealth and our family for you. We shall fight along­side you until we reach the fate besides you. May life be ugly after you (if we remain alive)."
Then Muslim bin Ausaja arose and said, "Shall we forsake you? Then when we go to the presence of the Almighty, what excuse shall we present to Him regarding the fulfilment of your rights? No, By Allah! I shall pierce this lance of mine in the hearts of the enemies, and shall strike them with my sword until it's hilt remains in my hands, and if no weapon remains with me to fight with them, I shall attack them with stones. By Allah! We shall not lift our hands off you, until it is proved to Allah that we have ho­noured the regard of the Prophet in respect of you. By Allah! Even if I know that I shall be killed and then made to rise again and then killed and burnt and my ashes be scattered around, and this shall happen seventy times, even then I shall not forsake you until I am killed in your obedi­ence. Then how should I forsake this when I know that death is to come only once, after which a great blessing awaits me."
 Then Zuhayr bin Qayn arose and said, "By Allah! I hold dear that I should be killed then made to arise and again killed, and this should happen to me a thousand times, and thus Allah, the Mighty, the Sublime, may defend you and your family from being killed."
 Then all the other companions unanimously repeated the same. (Tabari) They said, "By Allah! We shall not abandon you, infact our lives shall be sacrificed for your life. We shall defend you with our necks, faces and hands. Then we all shall die while having performed our duty."
 The following couplet best suits their discourses: "O my Master! Even if the throne of my greatness reaches the empyrean, I shall remain your serv­ant and a beggar at your door, if I lift my heart and it's love from you, then whom should I love and where should I take my heart"? May Allah reward them favourably with respect to Imam Husain (a.s.) Then Imam Husain (a.s.) returned back to his tent.
Qutubuddin Rawandi relates from Abu Hamza Sumali that Imam Ali Zainul Abedeen (a.s.) said that I was along with my father (Imam Husain) on the night preceding his martyrdom. Then he addressed his companions thus,  
"Consider this night to be an armour for yourselves, for these people desire me and after having killed me they will not turn towards you, while you are pardoned and are capable."  
They replied, "By Allah! This shall never ever happen." Imam said,  
"All of you will be killed tomorrow and no one will be spared."  
They replied, "Praise be to Allah who has bestowed grace upon us to be martyred alongwith you." Then Imam prayed for them and told them to lift up their heads. They did so and saw their status in Paradise, and Imam showed them one after the other their places therein. Thus every one was forwarding his face and chest facing the swords, so as to enter the status in Paradise.  
It is related in the Amali of Shaikh Sadooq from Imam Ja'far as Sadiq (a.s.), who says that after the discourse of the Imam with his companions, he ordered a trench to be dug around his army. The trench was dug and filled with firewood. Then Imam ordered his son Ali Akbar (a.s.) to fetch water, accompanied by thirty horsemen and twenty-foot soldiers, while they were in the state of severe fright and Imam was reciting the following couplet:  
"Time, shame on you as a friend, at the day's dawning and the sun's setting, how many a companion or seeker will be a corpse, time will not be satisfied with any substitute, the matter will rest with the Mighty One, and every living creature will have to journey along my path."  
Then he commanded his companions,  
Imam’s Discourse with Qasim ibn Hassan (a.s)
After Imam Hussayn (a) delivered his sermon on the eve of Ashoor, Then Qasim bin Hasan (a.s.) asked, "Am I too included in the list of the martyrs"? Hearing this Imam was moved and said,  
"O my dear son! How do you consider death (martyrdom in the way of Allah) to be near you"?  
Qasim re­plied, "It is sweeter than honey." Imam said,  
"Verily, by Allah! May your uncle be your ransom! You are one of them, who shall be martyred along with me after having fallen prey to a severity, and my (infant) son Abdullah (Ali Asghar) shall be martyred too."  
Hearing this Qasim asked, "O dear uncle! Then will the enemies reach the womenfolk so as to kill the suck­ling child Abdullah"? Husain replied,  
"Abdullah will be killed at that time when I, absorbed in intense thirst, will come back to the tent and ask for water or honey and nothing will be available. Then I will request my child to be brought to me so that I may kiss his lips (and thereby find relief). The child will be brought and placed in my hands, and a lewd man (from among the enemies) will shoot an arrow upon his neck and the child shall raise a cry. Then his blood will get filled in my palms and I shall raise my hands to the heavens and say: O Allah! I forebear and leave the ac­countability to You. The lances of the enemies will then be hurriedly thrown at me, while the fire in the trench dug behind the tents shall be roaring. Then I will attack them, the moment being the most bitter of my life. Then whatever Allah wills shall come forth."

Imam’s Discourse to Zaynab(s) on the night of Ashoor

The fourth Imam says: "I understood that my father meant to inform us of his martyrdom, and tears almost choked me, but I controlled myself. I realized that a calamity was about to fall. However, my aunt Zaynab also heard what I had heard, and as she was a woman, and the women are tender-hearted by nature, and lose patience, she could not control herself. She got up suddenly and went before her brother without wearing a veil and said: "Oh! That I should become brother less! I wish that I had died earlier. O successor of the deceased and O the refuge of the survivors! It is today that I am going to be left without mother, father and brother". On seeing his sister in a distressed condition Imam Husayn said: "Sister! Be patient lest Satan should make you lose your self-control".  
It may be said that these words of the Imam were a lesson for his sister which prepared her to face the difficult situations in Kufa and Damascus later. It was Zaynab who had to assume the leadership of this movement from the time of the Imam's martyrdom till the return of Ahlul Bayt to Madina, and by means of this lesson the Imam was entrusting this Divine trust to her. The Imam said: "Dear sister! Be patient lest Satan should make you lose your self-control". O dear sister! Control yourself and desire consolation from Allah alone. And know that everyone upon the earth shall die, while the dwellers of the heavens too shall perish, except the Face (Self) of Allah. Allah who has created with His power, and will make them alive again, and they shall all return to Him, while Allah is Unique. My grandfather was better than me, my father was better than me, and my mother was better than me. It is obligatory upon me and all Muslims to follow the example of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.)."
The Imam in his brief speech gave a significant lesson to his sister. Tears came in his eyes and he said: "Sister! What am I to do? You can see with what condition I am faced and what a large army has gathered to kill me".
After these consolatory remarks the Imam said: "Dear sister! I administer an oath to you that you will follow my advice. Do not tear your dress on account of my suffering, do not scratch your face and do not lament".
 Zaynab also uttered some touching words and became unconscious.

Imam Hussayn’s supplication on the Morning of Ashura

"O Allah! You are my support in all severities and are my hope in all adversities. And You are my support and reservoir in all unpleasant Aries which befalls me. Whatever numerous grief comes to heart, remedies blocked, and friends (having) deserted, and enemies rejoicing, I have brought forth to You and complain to You regarding them, and I do not turn to anyone except You. And You warded them off and sufficed. You are the Master of all blessings and the Possessor of all virtues, and the last Resort of all desires."

Hazrat Imam e Hussein's encounter and speech to Shimr (lant ) and his army on first approach

Azdi says that Abdullah bin Asim has related from Abdullah bin Zahhak Mashriqi that he said, that when the army advanced towards us and saw the moat, which we had dug filled with fire, they could not attack us from behind. Suddenly a man, riding a horse and well-equipped with ammuni­tion, advanced towards us and without uttering a word inspected the tents. Then he retreated back and called out, "O Husain! You have hastened to­wards the fire before the day of Qiyamah (Allah's refuge)." Imam said,
"Is he Shimr bin Ziljawshan"?  
The companions replied in the affirmative. (Irshad) Imam said,
"O son of a goat-herdess woman! You are more worthy of it."
Muslim bin Awsaja attempted to shoot an arrow at him but Imam stopped him from doing so. Muslim said, "Please let me shoot at him, for this wretched man is one of the great oppressors and Allah has made it possible for me to kill him." Imam replied,
"Do not shoot your arrow, I do not befriend that the battle may begin from my side."
(Tabari) Imam Husain (a.s.) possessed a horse named Lahiq, which he had given to his son Ali (Akbar) to ride. When the enfantry advanced closer, Imam called for his Camel and mounted it while calling out in a loud voice, which was heard by most men:
"O people! Listen to what I say and do not make haste, so that I may fulfil the responsibility (to counsel you) which rests upon me and that I may submit my plea regarding my arrival towards you. Then if you accept my plea and believe my words while giving me jus­tice, then you shall be fortunate and there will be no excuse for you to fight with me. And if you do not accept my word and deal unjustly with me, then [55] 'Muster therefore your designs and (gather) your accomplises, then let not your designs be dubious, then execute on me and give no respite (to me)'.[56] And'Verily my Protector is Allah Who sent down the Book (Qur'an) and He guards the virtuous ones'[57]
When his sisters heard his words, they started weeping and wailing, along­with his daughters. Imam sent his brother Abbas bin Ali (a.s.) along with his son Ali (Akbar) to console and quiten them. Then he said,
 "By my life! They still have a lot more to weep."
And when they became silent (Irshad) Imam praised and glorified Allah and remembered Him as He aught to be remembered. Then he sent salutations upon the Holy Prophet (s.a.w.s.), Angels and the other Prophets (a.s.). He spoke with such eloquence that no one had ever done so before him nor after him.

Imam Hussein's Sermon on the Day of Ashura

"Now then! Consider my family, and ponder as to who I am and then admonish yourselves. Then do you consider that killing me and plundering my sanctity and respect is lawful for you? Am I not the grandson of your Prophet and the son of his Vicegerent and cousin, who was the foremost in believing and the bearer of witness upon everything that the Prophet had brought from Allah? Was not Hamza, the chief of Martyrs, the uncle of my father? Was not Ja'far, who flies with two wings in Paradise, my Uncle? Did not the Tradition of the Prophet reach you in which he has said about me and my brother that both of us are the chiefs of the youth of Paradise? Then if you agree to what I say, and verily what I have said is nothing but the truth, then it is better, for by Allah, from the time I have realised that Allah dislikes the liars, I have never ever spoken a lie. Then if you do not believe to what I say, there are alive among you the companions of the Prophet. Go to them and ask them and they shall bear testimony to the truthfulness of my speech. Ask Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari, Abu Sa'eed Khu­dri, Sahl bin Sa'ad Sa'edi, Zayd bin Arqam and Anas bin Malik, they will tell you that they have heard this tradition from the Prophet of Allah regarding me and my brother. Is not this sufficient to refrain you from shedding my blood"?  
Then Shimr bin Ziljawshan, the accursed said, "I worship Allah (only) by lips (half heartedly), and do not understand what you say." Hearing this Habib bin Mazahir said, "I can see that you worship Allah with seventy types of doubts, and I bear testimony that you have spoken the truth and you cannot understand what the Imam says, for Allah has placed a seal (of ignorance) upon your heart."  
Imam continued,  
"Then if you doubt this, do you even doubt that I am the grandson of the Prophet of Allah (s.a.w.s.)? By Allah! There is no other grandson of the Prophet in the east or the west except myself from among yourselves or anyone else. Woe be to you! Have I killed anyone from among you whose revenge you desire? Or have I usurped the wealth of anyone or hurt anyone whose retribution you desire from me"?  
When no one answered him, he called out in a loud voice,
"O Shabas bin Rab'ee! O Hajjar bin Abjar! O Qays bin Ash'as! O Yazeed bin Haris! Have you not written let­ters to me saying that the fruits had ripened and the surrounding earth had blossomed, and to come to a huge army prepared for me"?  
They replied that they had not written any such letters. Imam said,
  "Glory be to Allah! Yes by Allah, you had written it."  
Then he continued, 
"O people! Then now if you do not like my arrival, then leave me so that I may go away to a place of refuge."  
Qays bin Ash'as said, "We do not know what you say. Then submit yourselves to your cousins (Bani Umayyah), they shall deal with you in a manner which you like." Imam replied,
 "By Allah! I shall not give my hands in yours like a base man, nor shall I flee away like a slave."
 Then he called out in a loud voice,  
"O servants of Allah! 'And verily, I take refuge with my Lord and your's, lest you stone me (to death)'[58] and I take refuge with my Lord and your's, from every arrog­ant, who does not believe in the day of reckoning."
Imam Husain (a.s.)'s address to the people of Kufa 
Sayyed ibne Tawoos relates that Imam Husain (a.s.) mounted his Camel (while some are of the opinion that it was a horse) and signalled them to remain silent. Then he praised and glorified Allah and extolled Him such as was due to Him. He sent salutations upon the Angels, Prophets and Apostles (a.s.) with great eloquence. Then he said,  
"O people! May you be ruined and afflicted. You enthusiatically invited us to assist you, and we has­tened to do so. Then now you have unsheathed those very swords, which we had given to you, and you have kindled the fire for us which we ourselves had kindled for your enemies and ours. You have sided with your own enemies and have proceeded to fight your friends along with them, although they have not acted with justice with you nor do you expect any kindness and fairness from them. A hundred woes be upon you! You have betrayed us at the time when the swords are still in their sheaths, the hearts in peace, opin­ions rightly apparent and free from error. But you are like the locusts, who have hastened towards battle, and are like the moths, who fall upon one another. May you be ruined O adorers of female slaves, those you have abandoned their ranks, those who have shun  the Qur'an, those who have modified the right speech, the pillars of evil, O the ones enticed by shaitan, and the severers of Divine codes! You side with them and betray us? Yes, verily treachery and breach of trust has been your ancient cus­tom, which had been established by your fathers and the branches thereof have come forth from it. You are the filthy and unpleasant fruits of it which suffocates it's own grower and are pleasing to the oppressors. Beware! Now this illegitimate son of the illegitimate father (Ubaydullah bin Ziyad) has stationed me between unsheathing the swords or then bear humil­iation, and far be it that we accept humiliation. Verily Allah, His Proph­et, and the Sacred Laps which have nursed us, the modest and those who abhor disgrace, disagree to it that we bow down to the ignoble men, and they exhort us to exhault being killed manly in the battlefield over it. Beware I shall fight you, even when there are a few men with me, and although some have deserted me."    
Then Imam Husain (a.s.) recited the couplets of Farwah bin Maseek Muradi:
  "Should we defeat our enemy, we will go on defeating them, but should we be defeated, it will be only once, tell those who rejoice in our affliction: wake up, for you too will end up like us, when death lifts it's grip off the necks of some people, it surely will cling to others, then by Allah! you will not remain on the earth longer than the time needed to ride a horse, then the earth will wheel on you like a millstone and turn like a pivot, this has been handed over to me by my father (a.s.), who had got it from my grandfather (s.a.w.s.),'Muster therefore your designs and (gather) your accomplises, then let not your designs be dubious, then execute on me and give no respite (to me).'[59] 'Verily I rely on Allah, my Lord and your Lord, there is no living creature, but He holds it by it's forelocks (is in His control)','Verily my Lord is on the Right Path'.[60] O Allah! Hold back the rains of the heavens from them, and let them be entangled in the drought (similar as the time) of Prophet Yusuf (a.s.), and appoint a man of Bani Saqeeh (referred to Mukhtar bin Abu Ubaydah Saqafi) over them, who would pour the bitter cup into their throats. For they have belied and deserted us. You are our Lord, we rely upon You and we return towards You, and Your Audience is the con­clusion (of everything)."  
Then he alighted from his mount and sat on the horse of the Prophet, named Murtajaz, and started arraying the group of his companions.
(Malhoof) Umar bin Sa'ad came forward and shot an arrow towards the army of Imam and said, "Bear witness in the presence of the commander, that I was the first person to shoot an arrow." Then those under his command started shooting arrows in large number which appeared like birds. Imam turned towards his companions and said,  
"May Allah bestow His blessings upon you! Arise to face the inevitable death, and these arrows are the messengers from the army, which is proceeding towards you."  
Then they attacked them in the part of the day and a group of the companions of Imam were killed.  
The narrators say that then Imam Husain (a.s.) caught hold of his beard and said,
  "Allah's wrath became severe upon the Jews when they attributed a son to Him, and His anger descended upon the Christians when they made Him the third of the three gods, while His wrath descended upon the fire worshippers (Magians) when they worshipped the sun and the moon instead of Him. And now the wrath of Allah shall befall this community, who has united to kill the grandson of the Prophet. Beware! By Allah! I shall not agree to their desires until I meet my Lord drenched in my blood."
This is the tradition. The Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace) said:
O people, take heed of the counsel God gave His friends when He rebuked the rabbis by saying, "Why do their scholars and rabbis not forbid their sinful talk and consumption of what is forbidden [that is, such talk and consumption on the part of the Jews]? Truly what they have done is evil' (5:63). Again God says: 'Cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary, are those among the Children of Israel who have failed to believe on account of their rebellion and transgression. They did not prevent each other from committing vile and corrupt acts; what they did was abominable!' (5:78-79). God blamed and reproached them because they saw with their own eyes the oppressors committing vile and corrupt acts, but did not stop them, out of love for the income they received from them as well as fear of persecution and injury. However, God orders us to fear Him, not men, and He says: The believing men and women are friends and protectors to each other; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil. (9:71).
We see that in this verse, in the course of enumerating the attributes of the believers, the attributes that indicate mutual affection, solicitude and the desire to guide each other, God begins with enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, considering this the prime duty. For He knows that if this duty is performed and is established within society, performance of all other duties will follow, from the easiest to the most difficult. The reason for this is that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil means summoning people to Islam, which is a struggle to establish correct belief in the face of external opposition, while at the same time vindicating the rights of the oppressed; opposing and struggling against oppressors within the community; and endeavoring to ensure that public wealth and the income derived from war are distributed in accordance with the just laws of Islam, and that taxes [zakat and all other forms of fiscal income, whether compulsory or voluntary ] are collected, levied, and expended in due and proper form.

O scholars, you who are celebrated and enjoy good repute on account of your learning! You have achieved fame in society because of your devotion, the good counsel you impart, and the guidance you dispense. It is on account of God that men venerate and stand in awe of you, so that even the Powerful fear you and feel compelled to rise respectfully before you, and men who are not subject to you and over whom you hold no authority willingly regard themselves as your subordinates and grant you favors they deny themselves. When the people do not receive their due from the public treasury, you intervene and act with the awe sameness and imperiousness of monarchs and the stature of the great. Have you not earned all these forms of respect and prestige because of men's hopes that you will implement God's laws, even though in most instances you have failed to do so?

You have failed to enforce most of the rights you were entrusted to preserve. You have neglected the rights of the oppressed and the lowly, squandered the rights of the weak and the powerless, but pursued assiduously what you regard as your personal rights. You have not spent your money or risked your lives for the sake of the One who gave you life, nor have you fought against any group or tribe for be sake of God. You desire, and regard it as your due, that He should want you paradise, the company of the Prophet, and security from hellfire in the hereafter. You who have such expectations of God, I fear that the full weight of His wrath will descend upon you, for although it is by His might and glory that you have achieved high rank, you show no respect to those who truly know God and wish to disseminate their knowledge's while you yourselves enjoy respect among God's bondsmen on His account.

I am also afraid for you for another reason: you see the covenants enacted with God being violated and trampled underfoot, yet you show no anxiety. When it comes to the covenants enacted with your fathers, you become greatly disturbed and anxious if they are only violated in part, but the pledges you have given to the Most Noble Messenger are a matter of complete indifference to you. The blind, the dumb, and the chronically sick everywhere lack protectors and no mercy is shown them. You do not behave in accordance with your function and rank, nor do you support or pay any regard to those who do so behave and who strive to promote the standing of the religious scholars. You purchase your safety from the oppressive ruling powers with flattery, cajolery, and compromise.

All these activities have been forbidden-you by God, and He has, more over, commanded you to forbid each other to engage in them, but you pay no attention. The disaster that has befallen you is greater than what has befallen others, for the true rank and degree of 'ulama' has been taken away from you. The administration of the country, the issuing of judicial decrees, and the approving of legislative programmers should actually be entrusted to religious scholars who are guardians of the rights of God and knowledgeable about God's ordinances concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden. But your position has been usurped from you, for no other reason than that you have abandoned the pivot of truth, the law of Islam and God's decree, and have disagreed about the nature of the Sunnah, despite the existence of clear proofs.

If you were true men, strong in the face of torture and suffering and prepared to endure hardship for God's sake, then all proposed regulations would be brought to you for your approval and for you to issue; authority would lie in your hands. But you allowed the oppressors to take away your functions and permitted government, which is supposed to be regulated by the provisions of the Shari'ah, to fall into their hands, so that they administer it on the shaky basis of their own conjectures and suppositions and make arbitrariness and the satisfaction of lust their consistent practice. What enabled them to gain control of government was your fleeing in panic from being killed, your attachment to the transitory life of this world. With that mentality and the conduct it inspires, you have delivered the powerless masses into the clutches of the oppressors. While some cringe like slaves under the blows of the oppressors, and others search in misery and desperation for bread and water, the rulers are entirely absorbed in the pleasures of kingship, earning shame and disgrace for themselves with their licentiousnesss following evil counseling, and showing impudence toward God. One of their appointed spokesmen mounts the minbar in each city. The soil of the homeland is defenseless before them, and they grab freely whatever they want of it. The people are their slaves and are powerless to defend themselves. One ruler is a dictator by nature, malevolent and rancorous; another represses his wretched subjects ruthlessly plundering by imposing on them all kinds of burdens; and still another refuses in his absolutism to recognize either God or the Day of Judgment! Is it not strange, how can one not think it strange, that society is in the clutches of a cunning oppressor whose tax collectors are oppressors and whose governors feel no compassion or mercy toward the believers under their rule?

It is God Who will judge concerning what is at dispute among us and deliver a decisive verdict concerning all that occurs among us.

O God! You know that everything we did [ that is, the struggle in Which they had recently engaged against the Umayyads] was not prompted by rivalry for political power, nor by a search for wealth and abundance; rather it was done in order to demonstrate to men the shinning principles and values of Your religion, to reform the affairs of your land, to protect and secure the indisputable rights of Your oppressed servants, and to act in accordance with the duties You have established and the norms, laws, and ordinances You have decreed.

So, O scholars of religion! You are to help us reach this goal, win back our rights from those powers who have considered it acceptable to wrong You and who have attempted to put out the light kindled by your Prophet. God the One suffices us, upon Him do we rely, to Him do we turn, in His hands lies our fate, and to Him shall we return.

When the Doyen of the Martyrs said at the beginning of this sermon:
'O people, take heed of the counsel God gave His friends when He rebuked the rabbis,
his address was not restricted to a particular group of people, those present in the assembly, the inhabitants of a certain city, town, or country, or even all people alive in the world at the time. Rather it embraces all who hear the summons at whatever time, for it begins with the expression "O people" (ya ayyuha al-nas), which occurs in the Qur'an with the same universal meaning. When God rebukes the rabbis, the Jewish scholars, and condemns their behavior, He is at the same time addressing His friends (awliya') and advising them. The word awliya means here those who have set their faces toward God and hold responsible positions in society, not the Twelve Imams.
God says in the verse we are examining: "Why do their scholars and rabbis not forbid their sinful talk and consumption of what is forbidden? Truly what they have done is evil." Thus He reproaches the rabbis and Jewish religious scholars for failing to prevent the oppressors' sinful talk, a term that includes lying, slander, distorting the truth, and so forth, and consumption of what is forbidden. It is obvious that this reproach and upbraiding is not confined to the scholars of the Jews, nor for that matter to those of the Christians; it applies also to the religious scholars in Islamic society, or indeed, any other society.

If the religious scholars of Islamic society are silent, therefore, in the face of the policies of the oppressors, they too are reproached and condemned by God; and here there is no distinction between scholars of the past, present, and future, they are equal in this regard. The Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace) made reference to this verse of the Qur'an so that the religious scholars of Islamic society would take heed, awaken and no longer neglect their duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil or stay silent in the face of the oppressive and deviant ruling classes.

There are two points to which he draws attention by citing this verse. First, the religious scholars' neglect of their duties is more harmful than the failure of others to perform their normal duties. If a bazaar merchant, for example, does something wrong, it is only he who suffers the harm that results. But if the religious scholars fail in fulfilling their duties, by keeping silent, let us say, in the face of tyranny, Islam itself suffers as a result. But if, on the contrary, they act in accordance with their duty and speak out when they should, eschewing silence, then Islam itself will benefit.

Secondly, although all things contrary to the Shari'ah must be forbidden, emphasis has been placed on sinful talk and consumption of what is forbidden, implying that these two evils are more dangerous than all others and must therefore be more diligently combated. Sometimes the statements and propaganda put forth by oppressive regimes are more harmful to Islam and the Muslims than their actions and policy, endangering the whole repute of Islam and the Muslims. God reproaches the religious scholars, therefore, for failing to prevent the oppressors from uttering dishonest words and spreading sinful propaganda. He says in effect:

Why did they not denounce the man who falsely claimed to be God's vicegerent on earth and the instrument of His will, who claimed to be enforcing God's laws in the right way and to have a correct understanding and practice of Islamic justice, even though he was incapable of comprehending what justice is? Claims like these are a form of sinful talk that is extremely harmful to society. Why did the religious scholars not prevent them from being made? The tyrants who uttered this nonsense committed treason and brought evil innovations into Islam; why did the religious scholars not stand in their way and make them desist from these sins?
If someone interprets God's ordinances in a way displeasing to Him, thus introducing an evil innovation in Islam, or executes laws that are anti Islamic, claiming to be acting in accordance with the requirements of Islamic justice, it is the duty of the religious scholars to proclaim their opposition. If they fail to do so, they will be cursed by God, as is apparent both from the verse under discussion and from this tradition:
When evil innovations appear, it is the duty of the scholar to bring forth his knowledge [ by condemning them ]; otherwise, God's curse will be upon him.
In such cases, the expression of opposition and the expounding of God's teachings and ordinances that stand in contradiction to innovation, oppression, and sin are also useful in themselves, for they make the masses aware of the corruption of society and the wrongdoing of the treacherous, sinful, and irreligious rulers. The people will then rise up in revolt and refuse to collaborate any longer with the tyrants or to obey corrupt and treacherous ruling powers. The expression of opposition by religious scholars is a form of "forbidding the evil" on the part of the religious leadership, which creates in its wake a wave of broad opposition and "forbidding the evil" on the part of all religiously inclined and honorable people. If the oppressive and deviant rulers do not bow to the wishes of such an oppositional movement by returning to the straight path of Islam and obedience to God's laws, but attempt to silence it by force of arms, they will, in effect, have engaged in armed aggression against the Muslims and acquired the status of a rebellious group (fi'ah baghiyah). It will then be the duty of the Muslims to engage in an armed jihad against that ruling group in order to make the policies ruling society and the norms of government conform to the principles and ordinances of Islam.
It is true that at present you do not have the power to prevent the innovative practices of the rulers or to halt the corruption in which they are engaged. But at least do not stay silent. If they strike you on the head, cry out in protest! Do not submit to oppression; such submission is worse than oppression itself. In order to counteract their press and propaganda apparatus, we must create our own apparatus to refute whatever lies they issue and to proclaim that Islamic justice is not what they claim it is, but on the contrary, has a complete and coherent programme for ordering the affairs of the family and all Muslim society. All these matters must be made clear so that people can come to know the truth and coming generations will not take the silence of the religious readers as proof that the deeds and policies of the oppressors conform to' the Shari'ah and that the perspicuous religion of Islam allows them to "consume what is forbidden," or in other words, to plunder the wealth of the people.

Since the range of thought of some people is confined to the mosque we are now sitting in and is incapable of extending any further, when they hear the expression "consumption of what is forbidden," they can only think of some corner grocer who is (God forbid) selling his customers short. They never think of the whole range of more important forms of "consuming what is forbidden," of plunder. Huge amounts of capital are being swallowed up; our public funds are being embezzled; our oil is being plundered; and our country is being turned into a market for expensive, unnecessary goods by the representatives of foreign companies, which makes it possible for foreign capitalists and their local agents to pocket the people's money. A number of foreign states carry off our oil after drawing it out of the ground, and the negligible sum they pay to the regime they have installed returns to their pockets by other routes. As for the small amount that goes into the treasury, God only knows what it is spent on. All of this is a form of "consumption of what is forbidden" that takes place on an enormous scale, in fact on an international scale. It is not merely an evil, but a hideous and most dangerous evil. Examine carefully the conditions of society and the actions of the government and its component organs, and then you will understand what hideous "consumption of what is forbidden" is taking place now. If an earthquake occurs in some corner of the country, it too becomes a means for the ruling profiteers to increase their illegal income: they fill their pockets with the money that is supposed to go to the victims of the earthquake. Whenever our oppressive, anti-national rulers enter into agreements with foreign states or companies, they pocket huge amounts of our people's money and lavish additional huge sums on their foreign masters. It is a veritable flood of forbidden consumption that sweeps past us, right before our eyes. All this misappropriation of wealth goes on and on: in our foreign trade and in the contracts made for the exploitation of our mineral wealth, the utilization of our forests and other natural resources, construction work, road building, and the purchase of arms from the imperialists, both Western and communist.

We must end all this plundering and usurpation of wealth. The people as a whole have a responsibility in this respect, but the responsibility of the religious scholars is graver and more critical. We must take the lead over other Muslims in embarking on this sacred jihad, this heavy undertaking; because of our rank and positions we must be in the forefront. If we do not have the power today to prevent these misdeeds from happening and to punish these embezzlers and traitors, these powerful thieves that rule over us, then we must work to gain that power. At the same time, to fulfill our minimum obligation, we must not fail to expound the truth and expose the thievery and mendacity of our rulers. When we come to power, we will not only put the country's political life, economy, and administration in order, we will also whip and chastise the thieves and the liars. They set fire to the al-Masjid al-'Aqsa. We cry out:

Leave the al-Masjid al-'Aqsa half-burned to the ground, do not erase all traces of the crime!
But the Shah's regime opens an account, sets up a fund, and starts collecting money from the people supposedly to rebuild the al-Masjid al Aqsa, but really to fill the pockets of our rulers while also covering up the crime committed by Israel.
These are the disasters that are afflicting the nation of Islam and that have brought us to our present state. Is it not the duty of the scholar, of Islam to speak out about all this? "Why do their rabbis not forbid their consumption of what is forbidden?" Why do our Muslim scholars not protest? Why do they say nothing about all this plundering? To return to the sermon of the Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace), he continues with a reference to the verse: "Cursed are those among the Children of Israel who have failed to believe" (5:78). This is not relevant to our present discussion. Then he says: "God reproached and blamed them [the rabbis] because they saw with their own eyes the oppressors committing vile and corrupt acts but did not stop them." According to the Doyen of the Martyrs, their silence was due to two factors: greed and baseness. Either they were covetous persons who profited materially from the oppressors, accepting payment to keep quiet, or they were faint-hearted cowards who were afraid of them. Consult the traditions referring to enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. There the conduct of those who constantly invent excuses in order to escape from doing their duty is condemned and their silence is considered shameful.

God says: 'Do not fear men, but fear Me' (2:150). This verge means roughly: 'Why do you fear men? Our friends (awliya') have given up their lives for the sake of Islam; you should be prepared to do the same.' "Elsewhere in the Qur'an God also says: The believing, men and women, are friends and protectors to each other; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil; ... they establish the prayer, pay the zakat, and obey God and His messenger' (9:71).
In this verse, God mentioning the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil first because He knows that if this duty is correctly performed, all other duties, whether easy or difficult, will fall into place. For enjoining the good and forbidding the evil means summoning men to Islam while at the same time remedying oppression, opposing the oppressor, making just distribution of the ghana'im, and levying and spending taxes in just and due form." If the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil is properly performed, all other duties will automatically fall into place. If the good is enjoined and the evil forbidden, the oppressors and their agents will be unable to usurp the people's property and dispose of it according to their own whims; they will be unable to squander the taxes taken from the people. For he who enjoins the good and forbids the evil actively calls men to Islam by remedying injustice and opposing the oppressor.
Enjoining the good and forbidding the evil has been made a duty primarily for the sake of accomplishing these high aims. We have restricted it, how ever, to a narrow category of affairs where harm is suffered chiefly by the individual who is guilty of a sin by deed or by omission. We have the idea firmly, in our heads that the instances of evil we are called upon to combat (munkarat) are only the things we encounter or hear about in every day life. For example, if someone plays music while we are riding on the bus, or the owner of a coffee house does something wrong, or someone eats in the middle of the bazaar during Ramadhan. an, we regard all these things as instances of evil we must denounce. Meanwhile, we remain totally oblivious to far greater evils.

Those who are destroying the welfare of Islam and trampling on the rights of the weak, it is they whom we must force to desist from evil. If a collective protest were made against the oppressors who commit an improper act or crime, if several thousand telegrams were sent to them from all the Islamic countries telling them to desist, to relinquish their errors, they certainly would desist. If every time a step were taken or a speech given against the interests of Islam and the welfare of the people, those responsible were condemned throughout the country, in every single village and hamlet, they would be obliged to retreat. Could they possibly do other wise? Never! I know them; I know what kind of people they are. They are very cowardly and would retreat very quickly. But if they see that we are more gutless than they are, they will give themselves airs and do whatever they want. When the 'ulama' of Qumm met and banded together on one occasion, and the provinces supported them by sending delegations and delivering speeches to show their solidarity, the regime retreated and canceled the measure we were objecting to. Afterwards they were able to cool our enthusiasm and weaken us; they divided us up and invented a separate "religious duty" for each of us. As a result of the differing opinions that appeared among us, they grew bold again, and now they do whatever they want with the Muslims and this Islamic country of ours.

The Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace) speaks of 'summoning men to Islam while at the same time remedying oppression and opposing the oppressors"; it is for the sake of these great aims that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil has been made a duty. If some poor grocer does something wrong, he has not harmed Islam, but only himself. In performing our duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, we must pay closest attention to those who harm Islam and those who, under various pretexts, plunder the people's means of livelihood.

On occasion we read in the paper, sometimes it is stated humorously, some times seriously, that many of the items collected for the victims of floods or earthquakes are picked up by our rulers for their own use. One of the 'ulam'a' of Malayer told me that the people had wanted to send a truckload of shrouds for the victims of some disaster, but the police refused to let them through and even tried to confiscate the lead! "Enjoining the good and forbidding the evil" is most imperative in such cases.

Now let me ask you, were the subjects mentioned by the Doyen of the Martyrs in his sermon addressed only to his companions who were gathered around him listening to his words? Does not the phrase "O people, take heed" address us too? Are we not included in "people"? Should we not profit from this address of the Doyen of the Martyrs? As I stated at the beginning of this discussion, the subjects contained in the sermon of the Doyen of the Martyrs were not intended for a single group or class. His address was more in the nature of a circular directed to all commanders, ministers, rulers, fuqaha', in short, to the whole world, particularly those who are alive and fully conscious. The circulars he issued belong together with the Qur'an in the sense that they demand our obedience until the Day of Resurrection. The verse referred to in the address speaks only of the Jewish scholars and rabbis, but its purport is universal. The Jewish scholars and rabbis were condemned by God because fear or covetousness made them keep silent in the face of the misdeeds of the oppressors, where as if they had spoken or cried out in protest, they could have prevented oppression from occurring. If the 'ulama' of Islam likewise fail to rise up against the oppressors and remain silent instead, they too will be condemned.

After addressing the people in general, the Doyen of the Martyrs then turns to a particular group, the 'ulama' of Islam, and tells them:

You enjoy prestige and standing in society; the nation of Islam respects and venerates you. You are held in awe and have high standing in society because you are expected to rise up against the oppressors in defence of the truth and to compel the oppressor to enforce the rights of the oppressed. Men have placed their hopes in you for the establishment of justice and the prevention of transgression by the oppressors.
Thus you have reached a certain station and rank. But you have failed to perform the duties of your station. If some harm were to befall the father of one of you, or if, God forbid, someone were to insult him, you would be greatly distressed and would cry out in protest. But now that God's covenants are being violated before your very eyes and Islam is being dishonored, you keep silent and are not distressed even in your hearts, for if you were distressed, you would be bound to raise your voices in protest. The blind, the dumb, and the bed-ridden are being destroyed and nobody shows any concern; no one is concerned for the wretched, barefooted people.

Do you imagine all that bombastic propaganda being broadcast on the radio is true? Go see for yourself at first hand what state our people are living in. Not even one out of every two hundred villages has a clinic. No one is concerned about the poor and the hungry, and they do not allow the measures Islam has devised for the sake of the poor to be implemented. Islam has solved the problem of poverty and inscribed it at the very top of its programme: "Sadaqat is for the poor." Islam is aware that first, the conditions of the poor must be remedied, the conditions of the deprived must be remedied. But they do not allow the plans of Islam to be implemented.
Our wretched people subsist in conditions of poverty and hunger, while the taxes that the ruling class extorts from them are squandered. They buy Phantom jets so that pilots from Israel and its agents can come and train in them in our country. So extensive is the influence of Israel in our country, Israel, which is in a state of war with the Muslims, so that those who support it are likewise in a state of war with the Muslims, and so great is the support the regime gives it, that Israeli soldiers come to our country for training! Our country has become a base for them! The markets of our country are also in their hands. If matters go on this way, and the Muslims continue to be apathetic, the Muslims will lose all say in the commercial life of the country.

To return to the address of the Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace):

You have not made proper use of your station. Not only do you do nothing yourselves; you fail to support the person who does want to do his duty. The only source of concern and satisfaction for you is that you have the support and respect of the oppressor, that he addresses you as 'Noble Shaikh'! What the nation suffers at the hands of the government is of no concern to you. The disaster that has befallen you is greater than what has befallen others for the true rank and degree of 'ulama' have been taken away from you. The administration of affairs and the implementation of law ought to be undertaken by those who are knowledgeable concerning God and are trustees of God's ordinances concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden. But that rank has been taken away from you.
The Imam (upon whom be peace) could have said at this point: "What is my right has been taken away from me, but you do not come to my aid," or, "The rights of the Imams have been taken away, but you have kept silent." Instead, he spoke of those "knowledgeable con-cerning God" (al-ulama bi Allah'), meaning the religious scholars, (rabbaniyyun) or leaders. Here he is not referring to the philosophers or mystics, for the person knowledgeable concerning God is the one who is learned in God's ordinances. It is such a person who is designated a religious scholar (ruhani or rabbani), naturally on condition that spirituality (ruhuniyyat) and orientation to God Almighty be fully apparent in the Imam went on:
But your position has been usurped from you for no other reason but that you have abandoned the pivot of truth and have disagreed about the nature of the Sunnah, despite the existence of clear proofs, But if you were to show strength in the face of hardship and suffering for God's sake, then the conduct of affairs, as willed by God Would be restored to you; command and authority would be yours.
If you were to act correctly and perform your duty, you would see that the conduct of affairs would be bound over to you. If the form of government willed by Islam were to come into being, none of the governments now existing in the world would be able to resist it; they would all capitulate. But unfortunately, we have failed to establish such a government Even in the earliest age of Islam, its opponents hindered its establishment and prevented government from being entrusted to the person chosen by God and His Messenger precisely in order to prevent what has happened. "You allowed the oppressors to take away your functions." When you failed to perform your duties and abandoned the task of government, it became possible for the oppressors to take over the position that was legitimately yours. "You allowed the affairs of God to fall into, their hands so they came to conduct them on the basis of their suppositions and arbitrary desires. What enabled them to win this control was your panic stricken flight from being killed, and your attachment to the life of this world. You have delivered the powerless into their clutches, so that Some of the people are now subjugated like slaves and others are deprived of even their livelihood." All of this applies to the age we live in; in fact, it applies more fully to the present than to the time of the Imam (upon whom be peace). "The rulers are entirely absorbed in the pleasures of kingship, earning shame and disgrace for themselves with their licentiousness, following evil counselors, and showing impudence toward God One of their appointed spokesmen mounts the minbar in each city to tell lies." In those days, preachers would praise the oppressors it from the minbar. Today, radio stations fill the air with propaganda on their behalf and maliciously misrepresent the ordinances of Islam.
"The earth is defenseless against them." Now, too, the oppressors can freely exploit the earth, without any obstruction; there is no one to stand in their way, "They grab freely whatever they want [of the earth". The people are their slaves and are powerless to defend themselves. One ruler is an obstinate tyrant, while another represses his wretched subjects ruthlessly, and still another refuses in his absolutism to recognize God as the beginning and end of all things. Is it not strange how could one not think it strange, that the world is in the clutches of cunning tyrants, oppressive tax collectors, and governors who have no compassion for the believers under their rule?

It is God Who will judge concerning what is at dispute among us, and deliver a decisive verdict concerning all that occurs among us. O God! You know that everything we did was not prompted by rivalry for political power, nor by desire for the chattels of this world. Rather it was done in order to demonstrate the signs of Your religion, to reform the affairs of Your land, to protect the oppressed among Your servants, and to act in accordance with the duties, norms, and ordinances You have established. So, O scholars of religion! Help us reach our goal and obtain our rights. The oppressors will wax strong in their efforts against you and will attempt to put out the light kindled by your Beloved [the Prophet] . But God suffices us; upon Him do we rely, to Him do we turn, and to Him is our journeying.
As we said, the entire address from beginning to end is addressed to the 'ulama'. There is no indication that the persons intended by the expression "those knowledgeable about God" are the Imams (upon whom be peace). They are the scholars of Islam, the rabbaniyyun. The designation rabbani refers to one who believes in God, fulfills God's ordinances, and is knowledgeable concerning those ordinances, as a trustee of God's decrees concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden.
When the Imam (upon whom be peace) said that the conduct of affairs belongs to the 'ulama', he did not mean to restrict this function to a period of ten or twenty years, or simply to the city and people of Medina. It is apparent from the whole speech that his meaning was more universal, that he had in mind a vast community that would undertake the establishment of justice.

If the 'ulama', who are the trustees of God's decrees concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden and who possess the two characteristics of knowledge and justice as set forth above, if they were to implement God's ordinances, to execute the penal provisions of the law, and generally to conduct and administer the affairs of the Muslims, the people would no longer be hungry and wretched and the laws of Islam would no longer be in abeyance.

The tradition containing this noble speech, then, is part of the evidence supporting our thesis, the governance of the faqih. Were its chain of transmission not weak, we could cite it as a direct proof. Even as it stands, we might say that the content of the tradition, being veracious, bears witness that it was uttered by one of the Masumeen.

from al Tawhid, p. 34
Vol. VII No. 4 Shawwal Dhu al Hijjah 1410
These fateful words were uttered by the Leader of the Martyrs, al-Husain ibn 'Ali [may Allah's prayers be upon him] when preparing to face the Satanic forces of Yazid and his cursed friends and followers.
Listen to me and do not make haste to kill me so that I may tell you what I must, and apprise you of the reason of my coming to Iraq. If you accept my excuse, believe in what I say, and behave towards me fairly, you will level for yourselves the path of prosperity, and then you will have no reason to kill me. And even if you do not accept my excuse and deviate from the path of justice, you must ponder over the pros and cons of the matter before you kill me, and should not undertake such a delicate task rashly and without deliberation. My supporter is the Almighty Allah Who revealed the Qur'an. Allah guards His deserving slaves.

Am I not the son of your Prophet's daughter? Is the wasi (vicegerent) of your Prophet and his cousin and the first person, who expressed belief in Allah and confirmed what was brought by His Prophet, not my father? Is the Doyen of Martyrs, Hamza bin 'Abd al-Muttalib, not the uncle of my father? Is the martyr Jafar bin Abi Talib who has two wings and flies with Allah's angles not my uncle? Have you not heard that the Holy Prophet has said about me and my brother.. "These two sons of mine are the Chiefs of the young men of Paradise". If you think that whatever I am saying is true so much the better. I swear by Allah that I know Allah hates the liars, and I have never told a lie. And even if you do not believe in my words and refute me, there are, still some companions of the Holy Prophet amongst you who, when asked, will apprise you of the facts. Ask Jaabir bin Abdullah al-Ansari, Abu Sa'id Khudari, Nahl bin Saadi, Zayd bin Arqam or Anas bin Malik, so that they may tell you that they have heard these words from the Holy Prophet about me and my brother. Is this tradition itself not sufficient to restrain you from killing me? If you are doubtful about this tradition can you doubt even this that I am the son of your Prophet's daughter? I swear by Allah that between East and West there is no son of the daughter of a Prophet except me either amongst you or amongst others.

You should tell honestly whether I have killed anyone from amongst you so that you may take revenge! Is it that I have appropriated your wealth and you are claiming it? Have I injured you for which you have risen to compensate? (None of them, however, came forward to give a reply to what the Imam said He was, therefore, obliged to call some of them by their names and addressed them in these words): O Shabath bin Rabie, Hajjar bin Abjar, Qays bin Ashath and Yazid bin Harith! Did you yourselves not write letters to me saying: 'The fruits have become ripe and the lands are green and fresh and the soldiers of Iraq are ready to sacrifice their lives for you and you should, therefore, proceed to Iraq as early as possible?'.

I will not swear allegiance to these people like weak and mean persons and will not flee the battlefield like slaves while fighting against the rascals. I seek refuge in Allah from the mischief of you people and of every arrogant person who does not believe in the Day of Judgment'.

 In His Name, The Most High The Sermon of Mina

O people, take lesson from the counsel God gave to His friends when He rebuked the rabbis by saying: "Why do the scholars and rabbis not forbid their sinful talk and consumption of what is unlawful ? Truly what they have done is evil." (5:63)
And God says: "Cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary are those among the Children of Israel who disbelieved on account of their rebellion and transgression. They did not prevent each other from committing vile and corrupt acts; surely what they did was abominable" (5:78-79).

God reproached them because they saw with their own eyes the oppressors committing vile and corrupt acts, but did not stop them, out of love for the favours they received from them as well as fear of persecution and injury. However, God says: "Fear not men, but fear Me." (5:44) And He says: "The believing men and women are friends and protectors to each other; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil; they perform the prayer, and pay the alms, and obey God and His messenger. Upon them God shall have mercy; God is Almighty, All-wise." (9:71)

God mentions the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil (al- 'amr bi al-ma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar) before all other duties, because He knows that if it is performed and is established in the society all other duties, the easy and the difficult, will also become established. The reason for this is that al-'amr bi al ma'ruf wa al-nahy 'an al-munkar means summoning people to Islam, as well as resistance against injustice, opposing and struggling against oppressors, and endeavoring to ensure that public wealth and income derived from war are distributed in accordance with the just laws of Islam, and that taxes are collected, levied and expended in due and proper form.

O scholars, who are celebrated and enjoy good repute on account of your learning! You have achieved a good name in society because of your good will. It is on account of God that men venerate you and stand in awe of you, so that even powerful fear you and the weak honour you, and those who are not subject to you and over whom you hold no authority grant you favours they deny themselves . When the people do not receive their due. they seek your intercession, and you walk in the street with the majesty of kings and princes.

Have you not earned all this respect and prestige because of the people's hopes that you will implement God's laws, even though in most instances you have failed to do so?

You have taken lightly your duties as leaders. You have neglected the rights of the oppressed and the lowly, but have assiduously pursued what you regard as your personal rights. You have not spent your money or risked your life for the sake of the One Who gave you life, nor have you fought against any group or tribe for the sake of God. Nevertheless, you desire - and regard it as your due - that He should grant you paradise, the company of the prophet, and security from chastisement in the hereafter. You have such expectations of God, I fear that the full weight of His wrath descend upon you, for although it is by His might and glory that you have achieved high rank, you show no respect to those who truly know god, while you yourselves enjoy respect among God's creatures on His account.

(I am also afraid for you for another reason:) you see the covenant enacted with God being violated and trampled under foot, yet you show no anxiety, when it comes to the covenants enacted with your fathers, you become greatly disturbed and anxious if they are only violated in part, but the pledges you have given to the most noble Messenger are a matter of complete indifference to you.

The blind, the dumb, and chronically ill everywhere lack protection in towns and no mercy is shown them. But you neither behave in accordance with your function and rank, nor you support or pay any regard to those who do. You purchase your safety from the oppressive ruling powers with flattery cajolery, and compromise.

All these activities have been forbidden you by God, and He has, more over, command you to forbid each other to engage in them, but you pay no attention.

The calamity that has befallen you is greater than what has befallen others, for true rank and degree of "Ulama" has been taken away from you. The administration of the country and the issuing of decrees and ordinances should actually be trusted to religious scholars who are guardians of God's ordinances concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden. But your position has been usurped from you, for no other reason than that you have abandoned the truth (al-haqq), and have disagreed about the nature of the sunnah, despite the existence of clear proofs.

Had you the forbearance to endure adversities and hardships for the sake of God, then all proposed regulations (God's affairs) would be brought to you for your approval and for you to issue; authority would lie in your hands. But you allowed the oppressors to take away your functions and God's affairs (i.e. government) to fall into their hands, so that they administer them by resorting to ambiguities and make arbitrariness and the satisfaction of lust their consistent practice. What enabled them to gain control of government was your fleeing in panic from (inevitable) death and your love of life, which shall in all certainty depart from you. As a consequence of that mentality, you have delivered the powerless masses into the clutches of the oppressors. While some cringe like slaves under the yoke of oppressors, and others have been reduced to destitution in regard to their livelihood, the rulers run the affairs of the government in accordance with their whims, earning ignominy and disgrace for themselves with their licentiousness, following evil counselors, and showing impudence toward God. One of their appointed spokesmen mounts the pulpit (minbar) in each city. The country is defenseless before them, and their hands grab freely whatever they want of it. The people are their slaves and are powerless to defend themselves. One of the governors is a dictator by nature, malevolent and rancorous; another represses to recognize either God or the Day of Resurrection! It is not strange - how can one think it strange, that society is the clutches of a cunning oppressor whose tax collectors are oppressors and whose governors feel no compassion or mercy towards the believers under rule.

It is God who will judge concerning what is dispute among us and deliver a decisive verdict concerning all that occurs among us.

O God! You know that everything we did was not prompted by rivalry for political power, nor for a search for wealth and abundance; rather it was done to demonstrate to men the shining principles and values of Your religion, to reform the affairs of Your land, to protect and secure the indisputable rights of Your oppressed servants, and to act in accordance with the duties You have established and the norms, laws, and ordinances You have decreed.

So (O scholars of religion!) You are to help us reach this goal, win back our rights from those powers who have considered it acceptable to wrong you and who have attempted to put out the light kindled by your Prophet. God suffices us, upon Him do we rely, to Him do we return, and to Him shall we return.

Imam Khumayni's Exposition:
The tradition consists of two parts. The first is a tradition transmitted by the Doyen of the Martyrs (peace be upon him) from the Commander of the Faithful, 'Ali (peace be upon him), and concerns the enjoining of the good and the prohibition of the evil.

The second part is the speech of the Doyen of the Martyrs concerning the governance of the faqih and the duties that are incumbent upon the fuqaha' such as the struggle against oppressors and tyrannical governments in order to establish an Islamic government and implement the ordinances of Islam. In the course of this celebrated speech, which he delivered at Mina, he set forth the reasons for his own jihad against the tyrannical Umayyad state. Two important themes may be deduced from this tradition. The first is the principle of the governance of the faqih, and the second is that the fuqaha' by means of jihad and enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, must expose and overthrow tyrannical rules and rouse the people so that the universal movement of all alert Muslims can establish Islamic government in place of tyrannical regimes.

This is the tradition. The Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace) said:

O people, take heed of the counsel God gave His friends when He rebuked the rabbis by saying, "Why do their scholars and rabbis not forbid their sinful talk and consumption of what is forbidden [that is, such talk and consumption on the part of the Jews]? Truly what they have done is evil' (5:63). Again God says: 'Cursed by the tongue of David and Jesus, son of Mary, are those among the Children of Israel who have failed to believe on account of their rebellion and transgression. They did not prevent each other from committing vile and corrupt acts; what they did was abominable!' (5:78-79). God blamed and reproached them because they saw with their own eyes the oppressors committing vile and corrupt acts, but did not stop them, out of love for the income they received from them as well as fear of persecution and injury. However, God orders us to fear Him, not men, and He says: The believing men and women are friends and protectors to each other; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil. (9:71).
We see that in this verse, in the course of enumerating the attributes of the believers, the attributes that indicate mutual affection, solicitude and the desire to guide each other, God begins with enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, considering this the prime duty. For He knows that if this duty is performed and is established within society, performance of all other duties will follow, from the easiest to the most difficult. The reason for this is that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil means summoning people to Islam, which is a struggle to establish correct belief in the face of external opposition, while at the same time vindicating the rights of the oppressed; opposing and struggling against oppressors within the community; and endeavouring to ensure that public wealth and the income derived from war are distributed in accordance with the just laws of Islam, and that taxes [zakat and all other forms of fiscal income, whether compulsory or voluntary ] are collected, levied, and expended in due and proper form.

O scholars, you who are celebrated and enjoy good repute on account of your learning! You have achieved fame in society because of your devotion, the good counsel you impart, and the guidance you dispense. It is on account of God that men venerate and stand in awe of you, so that even the Powerful fear you and feel compelled to rise respectfully before you, and men who are not subject to you and over whom you hold no authority willingly regard themselves as your subordinates and grant you favours they deny themselves. When the people do not receive their due from the public treasury, you intervene and act with the awe someness and imperiousness of monarchs and the stature of the great. Have you not earned all these forms of respect and prestige because of men's hopes that you will implement God's laws, even though in most instances you have failed to do so?

You have failed to enforce most of the rights you were entrusted to preserve. You have neglected the rights of the oppressed and the lowly, squandered the rights of the weak and the powerless, but pursued assiduously what you regard as your personal rights. You have not spent your money or risked your lives for the sake of the One who gave you life, nor have you fought against any group or tribe for be sake of God. You desire, and regard it as your due, that He should want you paradise, the company of the Prophet, and security from hellfire in the hereafter. You who have such expectations of God, I fear that the full weight of His wrath will descend upon you, for although it is by His might and glory that you have achieved high rank, you show no respect to those who truly know God and wish to disseminate their knowledges while you yourselves enjoy respect among God's bondsmen on His account.

I am also afraid for you for another reason: you see the covenants enacted with God being violated and trampled underfoot, yet you show no anxiety. When it comes to the covenants enacted with your fathers, you become greatly disturbed and anxious if they are only violated in part, but the pledges you have given to the Most Noble Messenger are a matter of complete indifference to you. The blind, the dumb, and the chronically sick everywhere lack protectors and no mercy is shown them. You do not behave in accordance with your function and rank, nor do you support or pay any regard to those who do so behave and who strive to promote the standing of the religious scholars. You purchase your safety from the oppressive ruling powers with flattery, cajolery, and compromise.

All these activities have been forbidden-you by God, and He has, more over, commanded you to forbid each other to engage in them, but you pay no attention. The disaster that has befallen you is greater than what has befallen others, for the true rank and degree of 'ulama' has been taken away from you. The administration of the country, the issuing of judicial decrees, and the approving of legislative programmes should actually be entrusted to religious scholars who are guardians of the rights of God and knowledgeable about God's ordinances concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden. But your position has been usurped from you, for no other reason than that you have abandoned the pivot of truth, the law of Islam and God's decree, and have disagreed about the nature of the Sunnah, despite the existence of clear proofs.

If you were true men, strong in the face of torture and suffering and prepared to endure hardship for God's sake, then all proposed regulations would be brought to you for your approval and for you to issue; authority would lie in your hands. But you allowed the oppressors to take away your functions and permitted government, which is supposed to be regulated by the provisions of the Shari'ah, to fall into their hands, so that they administer it on the shaky basis of their own conjectures and suppositions and make arbitrariness and the satisfaction of lust their consistent practice. What enabled them to gain control of government was your fleeing in panic from being killed, your attachment to the transitory life of this world. With that mentality and the conduct it inspires, you have delivered the powerless masses into the clutches of the oppressors. While some cringe like slaves under the blows of the oppressors, and others search in misery and desperation for bread and water, the rulers are entirely absorbed in the pleasures of kingship, earning shame and disgrace for themselves with their licentiousnesss following evil counseling, and showing impudence toward God. One of their appointed spokesmen mounts the minbar in each city. The soil of the homeland is defenseless before them, and they grab freely whatever they want of it. The people are their slaves and are powerless to defend themselves. One ruler is a dictator by nature, malevolent and rancorous; another represses his wretched subjects ruthlessly plundering by imposing on them all kinds of burdens; and still another refuses in his absolutism to recognize either God or the Day of Judgment! Is it not strange, how can one not think it strange, that society is in the clutches of a cunning oppressor whose tax collectors are oppressors and whose governors feel no compassion or mercy toward the believers under their rule?

It is God Who will judge concerning what is at dispute among us and deliver a decisive verdict concerning all that occurs among us.

O God! You know that everything we did [ that is, the struggle in Which they had recently engaged against the Umayyads] was not prompted by rivalry for political power, nor by a search for wealth and abundance; rather it was done in order to demonstrate to men the shinning principles and values of Your religion, to reform the affairs of your land, to protect and secure the indisputable rights of Your oppressed servants, and to act in accordance with the duties You have established and the norms, laws, and ordinances You have decreed.

So, O scholars of religion! You are to help us reach this goal, win back our rights from those powers who have considered it acceptable to wrong You and who have attempted to put out the light kindled by your Prophet. God the One suffices us, upon Him do we rely, to Him do we turn, in His hands lies our fate, and to Him shall we return.

When the Doyen of the Martyrs said at the beginning of this sermon:
'O people, take heed of the counsel God gave His friends when He rebuked the rabbis,
his address was not restricted to a particular group of people, those present in the assembly, the inhabitants of a certain city, town, or country, or even all people alive in the world at the time. Rather it embraces all who hear the summons at whatever time, for it begins with the expression "O people" (ya ayyuha al-nas), which occurs in the Qur'an with the same universal meaning. When God rebukes the rabbis, the Jewish scholars, and condemns their behavior, He is at the same time addressing His friends (awliya') and advising them. The word awliya means here those who have set their faces toward God and hold responsible positions in society, not the Twelve Imams.
God says in the verse we are examining: "Why do their scholars and rabbis not forbid their sinful talk and consumption of what is forbidden? Truly what they have done is evil." Thus He reproaches the rabbis and Jewish religious scholars for failing to prevent the oppressors' sinful talk, a term that includes lying, slander, distorting the truth, and so forth, and consumption of what is forbidden. It is obvious that this reproach and upbraiding is not confined to the scholars of the Jews, nor for that matter to those of the Christians; it applies also to the religious scholars in Islamic society, or indeed, any other society.

If the religious scholars of Islamic society are silent, therefore, in the face of the policies of the oppressors, they too are reproached and condemned by God; and here there is no distinction between scholars of the past, present, and future, they are equal in this regard. The Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace) made reference to this verse of the Qur'an so that the religious scholars of Islamic society would take heed, awaken and no longer neglect their duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil or stay silent in the face of the oppressive and deviant ruling classes.

There are two points to which he draws attention by citing this verse. First, the religious scholars' neglect of their duties is more harmful than the failure of others to perform their normal duties. If a bazaar merchant, for example, does something wrong, it is only he who suffers the harm that results. But if the religious scholars fail in fulfilling their duties, by keeping silent, let us say, in the face of tyranny, Islam itself suffers as a result. But if, on the contrary, they act in accordance with their duty and speak out when they should, eschewing silence, then Islam itself will benefit.

Secondly, although all things contrary to the Shari'ah must be forbidden, emphasis has been placed on sinful talk and consumption of what is forbidden, implying that these two evils are more dangerous than all others and must therefore be more diligently combated. Sometimes the statements and propaganda put forth by oppressive regimes are more harmful to Islam and the Muslims than their actions and policy, endangering the whole repute of Islam and the Muslims. God reproaches the religious scholars, therefore, for failing to prevent the oppressors from uttering dishonest words and spreading sinful propaganda. He says in effect:

Why did they not denounce the man who falsely claimed to be God's vicegerent on earth and the instrument of His will, who claimed to be enforcing God's laws in the right way and to have a correct understanding and practice of Islamic justice, even though he was incapable of comprehending what justice is? Claims like these are a form of sinful talk that is extremely harmful to society. Why did the religious scholars not prevent them from being made? The tyrants who uttered this nonsense committed treason and brought evil innovations into Islam; why did the religious scholars not stand in their way and make them desist from these sins?
If someone interprets God's ordinances in a way displeasing to Him, thus introducing an evil innovation in Islam, or executes laws that are anti Islamic, claiming to be acting in accordance with the requirements of Islamic justice, it is the duty of the religious scholars to proclaim their opposition. If they fail to do so, they will be cursed by God, as is apparent both from the verse under discussion and from this tradition:
When evil innovations appear, it is the duty of the scholar to bring forth his knowledge [ by condemning them ]; otherwise, God's curse will be upon him.
In such cases, the expression of opposition and the expounding of God's teachings and ordinances that stand in contradiction to innovation, oppression, and sin are also useful in themselves, for they make the masses aware of the corruption of society and the wrongdoing of the treacherous, sinful, and irreligious rulers. The people will then rise up in revolt and refuse to collaborate any longer with the tyrants or to obey corrupt and treacherous ruling powers. The expression of opposition by religious scholars is a form of "forbidding the evil" on the part of the religious leadership, which creates in its wake a wave of broad opposition and "forbidding the evil" on the part of all religiously inclined and honorable people. If the oppressive and deviant rulers do not bow to the wishes of such an oppositional movement by returning to the straight path of Islam and obedience to God's laws, but attempt to silence it by force of arms, they will, in effect, have engaged in armed aggression against the Muslims and acquired the status of a rebellious group (fi'ah baghiyah). It will then be the duty of the Muslims to engage in an armed jihad against that ruling group in order to make the policies ruling society and the norms of government conform to the principles and ordinances of Islam.
It is true that at present you do not have the power to prevent the innovative practices of the rulers or to halt the corruption in which they are engaged. But at least do not stay silent. If they strike you on the head, cry out in protest! Do not submit to oppression; such submission is worse than oppression itself. In order to counteract their press and propaganda apparatus, we must create our own apparatus to refute whatever lies they issue and to proclaim that Islamic justice is not what they claim it is, but on the contrary, has a complete and coherent programme for ordering the affairs of the family and all Muslim society. All these matters must be made clear so that people can come to know the truth and coming generations will not take the silence of the religious readers as proof that the deeds and policies of the oppressors conform to' the Shari'ah and that the perspicuous religion of Islam allows them to "consume what is forbidden," or in other words, to plunder the wealth of the people.

Since the range of thought of some people is confined to the mosque we are now sitting in and is incapable of extending any further, when they hear the expression "consumption of what is forbidden," they can only think of some corner grocer who is (God forbid) selling his customers short. They never think of the whole range of more important forms of "consuming what is forbidden," of plunder. Huge amounts of capital are being swallowed up; our public funds are being embezzled; our oil is being plundered; and our country is being turned into a market for expensive, unnecessary goods by the representatives of foreign companies, which makes it possible for foreign capitalists and their local agents to pocket the people's money. A number of foreign states carry off our oil after drawing it out of the ground, and the negligible sum they pay to the regime they have installed returns to their pockets by other routes. As for the small amount that goes into the treasury, God only knows what it is spent on. All of this is a form of "consumption of what is forbidden" that takes place on an enormous scale, in fact on an international scale. It is not merely an evil, but a hideous and most dangerous evil. Examine carefully the conditions of society and the actions of the government and its component organs, and then you will understand what hideous "consumption of what is forbidden" is taking place now. If an earthquake occurs in some corner of the country, it too becomes a means for the ruling profiteers to increase their illegal income: they fill their pockets with the money that is supposed to go to the victims of the earthquake. Whenever our oppressive, anti-national rulers enter into agreements with foreign states or companies, they pocket huge amounts of our people's money and lavish additional huge sums on their foreign masters. It is a veritable flood of forbidden consumption that sweeps past us, right before our eyes. All this misappropriation of wealth goes on and on: in our foreign trade and in the contracts made for the exploitation of our mineral wealth, the utilization of our forests and other natural resources, construction work, road building, and the purchase of arms from the imperialists, both Western and communist.

We must end all this plundering and usurpation of wealth. The people as a whole have a responsibility in this respect, but the responsibility of the religious scholars is graver and more critical. We must take the lead over other Muslims in embarking on this sacred jihad, this heavy undertaking; because of our rank and positions we must be in the forefront. If we do not have the power today to prevent these misdeeds from happening and to punish these embezzlers and traitors, these powerful thieves that rule over us, then we must work to gain that power. At the same time, to fulfill our minimum obligation, we must not fail to expound the truth and expose the thievery and mendacity of our rulers. When we come to power, we will not only put the country's political life, economy, and administration in order, we will also whip and chastise the thieves and the liars. They set fire to the al-Masjid al-'Aqsa. We cry out:

 To return to the sermon of the Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace), he continues with a reference to the verse: "Cursed are those among the Children of Israel who have failed to believe" (5:78). This is not relevant to our present discussion. Then he says: "God reproached and blamed them [the rabbis] because they saw with their own eyes the oppressors committing vile and corrupt acts but did not stop them." According to the Doyen of the Martyrs, their silence was due to two factors: greed and baseness. Either they were covetous persons who profited materially from the oppressors, accepting payment to keep quiet, or they were faint-hearted cowards who were afraid of them. Consult the traditions referring to enjoining the good and forbidding the evil. There the conduct of those who constantly invent excuses in order to escape from doing their duty is condemned and their silence is considered shameful.

God says: 'Do not fear men, but fear Me' (2:150). This verge means roughly: 'Why do you fear men? Our friends (awliya') have given up their lives for the sake of Islam; you should be prepared to do the same.' "Elsewhere in the Qur'an God also says: The believing, men and women, are friends and protectors to each other; they enjoin the good and forbid the evil; ... they establish the prayer, pay the zakat, and obey God and His messenger' (9:71).
In this verse, God mentioning the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil first because He knows that if this duty is correctly performed, all other duties, whether easy or difficult, will fall into place. For enjoining the good and forbidding the evil means summoning men to Islam while at the same time remedying oppression, opposing the oppressor, making just distribution of the ghana'im, and levying and spending taxes in just and due form." If the duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil is properly performed, all other duties will automatically fall into place. If the good is enjoined and the evil forbidden, the oppressors and their agents will be unable to usurp the people's property and dispose of it according to their own whims; they will be unable to squander the taxes taken from the people. For he who enjoins the good and forbids the evil actively calls men to Islam by remedying injustice and opposing the oppressor.
Enjoining the good and forbidding the evil has been made a duty primarily for the sake of accomplishing these high aims. We have restricted it, how ever, to a narrow category of affairs where harm is suffered chiefly by the individual who is guilty of a sin by deed or by omission. We have the idea firmly, in our heads that the instances of evil we are called upon to combat (munkarat) are only the things we encounter or hear about in every day life. For example, if someone plays music while we are riding on the bus, or the owner of a coffee house does something wrong, or someone eats in the middle of the bazaar during Ramadhan. an, we regard all these things as instances of evil we must denounce. Meanwhile, we remain totally oblivious to far greater evils.

Those who are destroying the welfare of Islam and trampling on the rights of the weak, it is they whom we must force to desist from evil. If a collective protest were made against the oppressors who commit an improper act or crime, if several thousand telegrams were sent to them from all the Islamic countries telling them to desist, to relinquish their errors, they certainly would desist. If every time a step were taken or a speech given against the interests of Islam and the welfare of the people, those responsible were condemned throughout the country, in every single village and hamlet, they would be obliged to retreat. Could they possibly do other wise? Never! I know them; I know what kind of people they are. They are very cowardly and would retreat very quickly. But if they see that we are more gutless than they are, they will give themselves airs and do whatever they want. When the 'ulama' of Qumm met and banded together on one occasion, and the provinces supported them by sending delegations and delivering speeches to show their solidarity, the regime retreated and canceled the measure we were objecting to. Afterwards they were able to cool our enthusiasm and weaken us; they divided us up and invented a separate "religious duty" for each of us. As a result of the differing opinions that appeared among us, they grew bold again, and now they do whatever they want with the Muslims and this Islamic country of ours.

The Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace) speaks of 'summoning men to Islam while at the same time remedying oppression and opposing the oppressors"; it is for the sake of these great aims that enjoining the good and forbidding the evil has been made a duty. If some poor grocer does something wrong, he has not harmed Islam, but only himself. In performing our duty of enjoining the good and forbidding the evil, we must pay closest attention to those who harm Islam and those who, under various pretexts, plunder the people's means of livelihood.

On occasion we read in the paper, sometimes it is stated humorously, some times seriously, that many of the items collected for the victims of floods or earthquakes are picked up by our rulers for their own use. One of the 'ulam'a' of Malayer told me that the people had wanted to send a truckload of shrouds for the victims of some disaster, but the police refused to let them through and even tried to confiscate the lead! "Enjoining the good and forbidding the evil" is most imperative in such cases.

Now let me ask you, were the subjects mentioned by the Doyen of the Martyrs in his sermon addressed only to his companions who were gathered around him listening to his words? Does not the phrase "O people, take heed" address us too? Are we not included in "people"? Should we not profit from this address of the Doyen of the Martyrs? As I stated at the beginning of this discussion, the subjects contained in the sermon of the Doyen of the Martyrs were not intended for a single group or class. His address was more in the nature of a circular directed to all commanders, ministers, rulers, fuqaha', in short, to the whole world, particularly those who are alive and fully conscious. The circulars he issued belong together with the Qur'an in the sense that they demand our obedience until the Day of Resurrection. The verse referred to in the address speaks only of the Jewish scholars and rabbis, but its purport is universal. The Jewish scholars and rabbis were condemned by God because fear or covetousness made them keep silent in the face of the misdeeds of the oppressors, where as if they had spoken or cried out in protest, they could have prevented oppression from occurring. If the 'ulama' of Islam likewise fail to rise up against the oppressors and remain silent instead, they too will be condemned.

After addressing the people in general, the Doyen of the Martyrs then turns to a particular group, the 'ulama' of Islam, and tells them:

You enjoy prestige and standing in society; the nation of Islam respects and venerates you. You are held in awe and have high standing in society because you are expected to rise up against the oppressors in defence of the truth and to compel the oppressor to enforce the rights of the oppressed. Men have placed their hopes in you for the establishment of justice and the prevention of transgression by the oppressors.
Thus you have reached a certain station and rank. But you have failed to perform the duties of your station. If some harm were to befall the father of one of you, or if, God forbid, someone were to insult him, you would be greatly distressed and would cry out in protest. But now that God's covenants are being violated before your very eyes and Islam is being dishonored, you keep silent and are not distressed even in your hearts, for if you were distressed, you would be bound to raise your voices in protest. The blind, the dumb, and the bed-ridden are being destroyed and nobody shows any concern; no one is concerned for the wretched, barefooted people.

Do you imagine all that bombastic propaganda being broadcast on the radio is true? Go see for yourself at first hand what state our people are living in. Not even one out of every two hundred villages has a clinic. No one is concerned about the poor and the hungry, and they do not allow the measures Islam has devised for the sake of the poor to be implemented. Islam has solved the problem of poverty and inscribed it at the very top of its programme: "Sadaqat is for the poor." Islam is aware that first, the conditions of the poor must be remedied, the conditions of the deprived must be remedied. But they do not allow the plans of Islam to be implemented.
Our wretched people subsist in conditions of poverty and hunger, while the taxes that the ruling class extorts from them are squandered. They buy Phantom jets so that pilots from Israel and its agents can come and train in them in our country. So extensive is the influence of Israel in our country, Israel, which is in a state of war with the Muslims, so that those who support it are likewise in a state of war with the Muslims, and so great is the support the regime gives it, that Israeli soldiers come to our country for training! Our country has become a base for them! The markets of our country are also in their hands. If matters go on this way, and the Muslims continue to be apathetic, the Muslims will lose all say in the commercial life of the country.

To return to the address of the Doyen of the Martyrs (upon whom be peace):

You have not made proper use of your station. Not only do you do nothing yourselves; you fail to support the person who does want to do his duty. The only source of concern and satisfaction for you is that you have the support and respect of the oppressor, that he addresses you as 'Noble Shaikh'! What the nation suffers at the hands of the government is of no concern to you. The disaster that has befallen you is greater than what has befallen others for the true rank and degree of 'ulama' have been taken away from you. The administration of affairs and the implementation of law ought to be undertaken by those who are knowledgeable concerning God and are trustees of God's ordinances concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden. But that rank has been taken away from you.
The Imam (upon whom be peace) could have said at this point: "What is my right has been taken away from me, but you do not come to my aid," or, "The rights of the Imams have been taken away, but you have kept silent." Instead, he spoke of those "knowledgeable con-cerning God" (al-ulama bi Allah'), meaning the religious scholars, (rabbaniyyun) or leaders. Here he is not referring to the philosophers or mystics, for the person knowledgeable concerning God is the one who is learned in God's ordinances. It is such a person who is designated a religious scholar (ruhani or rabbani), naturally on condition that spirituality (ruhuniyyat) and orientation to God Almighty be fully apparent in the Imam went on:
But your position has been usurped from you for no other reason but that you have abandoned the pivot of truth and have disagreed about the nature of the Sunnah, despite the existence of clear proofs, But if you were to show strength in the face of hardship and suffering for God's sake, then the conduct of affairs, as willed by God Would be restored to you; command and authority would be yours.
If you were to act correctly and perform your duty, you would see that the conduct of affairs would be bound over to you. If the form of government willed by Islam were to come into being, none of the governments now existing in the world would be able to resist it; they would all capitulate. But unfortunately, we have failed to establish such a government Even in the earliest age of Islam, its opponents hindered its establishment and prevented government from being entrusted to the person chosen by God and His Messenger precisely in order to prevent what has happened. "You allowed the oppressors to take away your functions." When you failed to perform your duties and abandoned the task of government, it became possible for the oppressors to take over the position that was legitimately yours. "You allowed the affairs of God to fall into, their hands so they came to conduct them on the basis of their suppositions and arbitrary desires. What enabled them to win this control was your panic stricken flight from being killed, and your attachment to the life of this world. You have delivered the powerless into their clutches, so that Some of the people are now subjugated like slaves and others are deprived of even their livelihood." All of this applies to the age we live in; in fact, it applies more fully to the present than to the time of the Imam (upon whom be peace). "The rulers are entirely absorbed in the pleasures of kingship, earning shame and disgrace for themselves with their licentiousness, following evil counselors, and showing impudence toward God One of their appointed spokesmen mounts the minbar in each city to tell lies." In those days, preachers would praise the oppressors it from the minbar. Today, radio stations fill the air with propaganda on their behalf and maliciously misrepresent the ordinances of Islam.
"The earth is defenseless against them." Now, too, the oppressors can freely exploit the earth, without any obstruction; there is no one to stand in their way, "They grab freely whatever they want [of the earth". The people are their slaves and are powerless to defend themselves. One ruler is an obstinate tyrant, while another represses his wretched subjects ruthlessly, and still another refuses in his absolutism to recognize God as the beginning and end of all things. Is it not strange how could one not think it strange, that the world is in the clutches of cunning tyrants, oppressive tax collectors, and governors who have no compassion for the believers under their rule?

It is God Who will judge concerning what is at dispute among us, and deliver a decisive verdict concerning all that occurs among us. O God! You know that everything we did was not prompted by rivalry for political power, nor by desire for the chattels of this world. Rather it was done in order to demonstrate the signs of Your religion, to reform the affairs of Your land, to protect the oppressed among Your servants, and to act in accordance with the duties, norms, and ordinances You have established. So, O scholars of religion! Help us reach our goal and obtain our rights. The oppressors will wax strong in their efforts against you and will attempt to put out the light kindled by your Beloved [the Prophet] . But God suffices us; upon Him do we rely, to Him do we turn, and to Him is our journeying.
As we said, the entire address from beginning to end is addressed to the 'ulama'. There is no indication that the persons intended by the expression "those knowledgeable about God" are the Imams (upon whom be peace). They are the scholars of Islam, the rabbaniyyun. The designation rabbani refers to one who believes in God, fulfills God's ordinances, and is knowledgeable concerning those ordinances, as a trustee of God's decrees concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden.
When the Imam (upon whom be peace) said that the conduct of affairs belongs to the 'ulama', he did not mean to restrict this function to a period of ten or twenty years, or simply to the city and people of Medina. It is apparent from the whole speech that his meaning was more universal, that he had in mind a vast community that would undertake the establishment of justice.

If the 'ulama', who are the trustees of God's decrees concerning what is permitted and what is forbidden and who possess the two characteristics of knowledge and justice as set forth above, if they were to implement God's ordinances, to execute the penal provisions of the law, and generally to conduct and administer the affairs of the Muslims, the people would no longer be hungry and wretched and the laws of Islam would no longer be in abeyance.

The tradition containing this noble speech, then, is part of the evidence supporting our thesis, the governance of the faqih. Were its chain of transmission not weak, we could cite it as a direct proof. Even as it stands, we might say that the content of the tradition, being veracious, bears witness that it was uttered by one of the Masumeen.

from al Tawhid, p. 34 , Vol. VII No. 4 Shawwal Dhu al Hijjah 1410  mina & yasid
 O people, take lessons from the matters that Allah has cited as warnings for His disciples when He dispraised the rabbis in His saying: Why did the men of Allah and rabbis not forbid them from following their sinful words and their consuming of unlawful gains? (Holy Qur'an 5:63)
The unbelievers among the Israelites, because of their disobedience and transgression, were condemned by David and Jesus, the son of Mary, for their disobedience; they were transgressors.

They did not prevent each other from committing sins nor would they themselves stay away from them. Evil was what they had done! (Holy Qur'an 5:78-79).
Allah dishonored them because they did not forbid the wrongdoers from doing evil and committing sins while they were among them, for they had desired for gaining more gifts from the wrongdoers and they had feared them. Allah says: Do not be afraid of people but have fear of Me. (Holy Qur'an 5:44).
The believers, both male and female, are each other's guardians. They try to make others do good and prevent them from committing sins .(Holy Qur'an 9:71).
Allah has begun with enjoining good and forbidding evil because He has known that if these two matters are carried out thoroughly, all the other obligatory duties, the easy and the difficult, will be carried out thoroughly. This is because enjoining good and forbidding evil is advocacy to Islam, restoration of the grievances, opposition
of the wrongdoer, (just) allotment of the booty and the spoils, and taking the alms to put them in their proper places. You are the company that are famous for knowledge, mentioned in goodness, renowned with advice, and respected by people through Allah. The masters stand in awe of you, the weak honor you, and those whom
you have not done favors and who do not need you prefer you to others. You intercede for settling people's needs when they are deprived. You walk in the ways with gravity of kings and dignity of celebrities. You have attained all these just because you are expected to fulfill the rights of Allah; yet, you omitted most of His rights when you disregarded the Imams, threw away the rights of the weak, and sought only your claimed rights. You have not spent any wealth, risked your souls for their Creator, or opposed your clan for sake of Allah. You are looking forward to gaining Paradise, the neighborhood of Allah's messengers, and the salvation from His punishment. I anticipate you, who hope Allah, will suffer a form of Allah's retribution because you, through the favors of Allah, have attained such a rank by which you are preferred to other. You are respected among people by means of Allah. However, you notice that the traditions of Allah are omitted, but you do not move for it, while you may move when any of your father's traditions is violated. The traditions of the Prophet (S.A.W.) are broken. The blind, the deaf, and the chronically ill are left without help in the cities. You neither behave mercifully nor do you use your positions. You do not aid those who assume such deeds and you achieve your safety from the wrongdoers (or the unjust rulers) by means of flattery and cajolery. Allah has warned you against all these
conducts but you are negligent while you will be responsible more than the others because you enjoy the positions of scholars. Had you only felt of so! Moreover, the courses of affairs and rulings are under the control of the scholars who are the keepers of the legal and the illegal affairs of Allah. This standing is surely usurped from you just because you have gone in different direction away from the right and disagreed about the Sunnah after the clear exposition of the evidences. If you tolerated the harm and bore the burdens for Allah's sake, all the
affairs of Allah would arrive at your hands, emanate from you, and devolve upon you. But you have made the unjust rulers occupy your positions and handed over the affairs of Allah to them. They are acting suspiciously and pursuing their passions. Your escape from death and adherence to this life, which will sooner or later leave you, gave them a free hand on doing so. Thus, you forsook the weak ones some of whom were enslaved compulsorily and others were suffering under the control of the straits of livelihood. The unjust rulers therefore are rolling in royalty with their own opinions and disgracing others by their own passions as they follow the examples of the evil and dare the All-omnipotent (Allah). In every country, they are assigning an eloquent orator on the pulpits of Allah. Lands are vacant for them as their hands are prevailing on everything and people are taken as their slaves because they lack the power to defend themselves. They are either a transgressing tyrant or a domineering, coarse to the weak, and obeyed who does not acknowledge the Initiator the Recreator. How strange this is! I should astonish at such affairs when the lands are prevailed by tyrannical cheaters, wrongful bribers, or unmerciful governors. Allah is the judge in our question of disputation and His judgment will pass over our controversy. O Allah. You know that it was not a matter of conflict for power or request of the worldly wreckage (that made me say so), but it was just for showing the signs of Your religion and spreading betterment
on Your lands so that the wronged servants will be secured and Your ordinances, traditions, and laws will be acted. Because you had not supported or treated us fairly, the wrongdoers overcame you and wrought towards extinguishing the illumination of your Prophet (S.A.W.). Allah is sufficient protector for us. Upon Him we depend, to Him we refer, and to Him will be our return. Source:Tuhaf al-Uqool
Prayer for the Day of Arafah:

Praise belongs to God whose decree none may avert, and whose gift none may prevent. No fashioner's fashioning is like His fashioning, and He is the Generous, the All-embracing. He brought forth the varieties of unprecedented creatures and perfected through His wisdom all He had fashioned. Hidden not from Him are harbingers, nor lost with Him are deposits. He repays every fashioner, feathers the nest of all who are content and has mercy upon all who humble themselves. He sends down benefits and the all-encompassing Book in radiant light. He hears supplications, averts afflictions, raises up in degrees, and knocks down tyrants. For there is no god other than He, nothing is equal to Him, "Like Him there is naught, and He is the Hearing, the Seeing" (XLII, II), the subtle, the Aware, and "He is powerful over all things" (V, I20 etc.). O God, I make Thee my quest and bear witness to Thy Lordship, acknowledging that Thou art my Lord and to Thee is my return. Thou originated me by Thy blessing before I was a thing remembered. Thou created me from dust, then gavest me a place in the loins (of my fathers), secure from the uncertainty of Fate and the vagaries of the ages and the years. I remained a traveler from loin to womb in a time immemorial of past days and bygone centuries. In Thy tenderness, bounty and goodness toward me Thou didst not send me out into the empire of the leaders of disbelief, those who broke Thy covenant and cried lies to Thy messengers. Rather, Thou sentest me out to that guidance which had been foreordained for me, the way which Thou maddest easy for me and in which Thou nurtured me. And before that Thou wert kind to me through Thy gracious fashioning and abundant blessings. Thou originated my creation from a sperm-drop spilled and maddest me to dwell in a threefold gloom among flesh, blood and skin. Thou gravest me not to witness my creation, nor didst Thou entrust me with anything of my own affair. Then thou sentest me out into the world for the guidance that had been foredained for me, complete and unimpaired. Thou watched over me in the cradle as an infant boy, provided me with food, wholesome milk, and turned the hearts of the nurse-maids toward me. Thou entrusted my upbringing to compassionate mothers, guarded me from the calamities brought by the jinn and kept me secure from excess and lack. High art Thou, O Merciful! O Compassionate! Then when I began to utter speech Thou completed for me Thy abundant blessings. Thou nurtured me more and more each year until, when my nature was perfected and my strength balanced, Thou madest Thy argument encumbent upon me by inspiring me with knowledge of Thee, awing me with the marvels of Thy wisdom, awakening me to the wonders of Thy creation which Thou hadst multiplied in Thy Heaven and Thy earth, and instructing me in Thy thanks and remembrance. Thou madest encumbent upon me Thy obedience and worship, madest me to understand what Thy messengers had brought and madest easy for me the acceptance of Thy good pleasure. Thou wast gracious to me in all of this, through Thy succour and kindness. Then, since Thou created me from the best soil, Thou wert not satisfied, my God, that I should have one blessing without another. Thou provided me with varieties of sustenance and kinds of garments and Thy tremendous, most tremendous, graciousness to me and Thy eternal goodness toward me. And finally, when Thou hadst completed for me every blessing and turned away from me all misfortunes, Thou wert not prevented by my ignorance and audacity from guiding me toward that which would bring me nigh to Thee or from giving me success in that which would bring me close to Thee. For if I prayed to Thee Thou answered, if I asked of Thee Thou gavest, if I obeyed Thee Thou showed Thy gratitude, and if I thanked Thee Thou gavest me more. All of that was to perfect Thy blessings upon me and Thy goodness toward me. So glory be to Thee; Glory be to Thee, who are Producer and Reproducer, Laudable, Glorious. Holy are Thy Names and tremendous Thy bounties. So which of Thy blessings, my God, can I enumerate by counting and mentioning? For which of Thy gifts am I able to give thanks ? Since they, O Lord, are more than reckoners can count or those who entrust to memory can attain by knowledge. But the affliction and hardship, O God, that Thou turned and averted from me is more than the health and happiness that came to me. And I witness, my God, by the truth of my faith, the knotted resolutions of my certainty, my pure and unadulterated profession of Unity, the hidden inwardness of my consciousness, the places to which the streams of light of my eyes are attached, the lines on my forehead's surface, the openings for my breath's channels, the parts of my nose's soft point, the paths of my ears' canals, what my lips close upon and compress, the movements of my tongue in speaking, the joint at the back of my mouth and jaw, the sockets of my molar teeth, the place where I swallow my food and drink, that which bears my brain, the hollow passages of my neck's fibers, that which is contained in my breast's cavity, the carriers of my aorta, the places where my heart's curtain is attached, the small pieces of flesh around my liver, that which the ribs of my sides encompass, the sockets of my joints, the contraction of my members, the tips of my fingers, my flesh, my blood, my hair, my skin, my nerves, my windpipe, my bones, my brain, my veins, and all of my members, what was knitted upon them in the days when I was a suckling baby, what the earth has taken away from me, my sleep, my waking, my being still, and the movements of my bowing and prostrating, that had I taken pains and had I striven for the duration of the epochs and ages were my life to be extended through them to deliver thanks for one of Thy blessings, I would not have been able to do so, except by Thy grace, which alone makes encumbent upon me never-ending and ever renewed gratitude to Thee, and fresh and ever present praise. Indeed, and were I and the reckoners among Thy creatures ever so eager to calculate the extent of Thy bestowal of blessings, whether past or approaching, we would fail to encompass it through numbers or to calculate its boundaries. Never How could it ever be done! For Thou announcest in Thy eloquent Book and truthful Tiding, "And if you count God's blessing, you will never number it" (XIV, 34). Thy Book, O God, Thy Message, has spoken the truth! And Thy prophets and messengers delivered Thy revelation that Thou hadst sent down upon them and the religion that Thou hadst promulgated for them and through them. And I witness, my God, by my effort, my diligence, and the extent of my obedience and my capacity, and I say as a believer possessing certainty, "Praise belongs to God, who has not taken to Him a son" that He might have an heir, "and who has not any associate in His dominion" who might oppose Him in what He creates, "nor any protector out of humbleness" (XVII, III) who would aid Him in what He fashions. So glory be to Him, glory be to Him! "Why, were there gods in earth and heaven other than God, they would surely go to ruin" (XXI, 22) and be rent. Glory be to God, the Unique, the One, "the Everlasting Refuge" who "has not begotten, nor has He been begotten, and equal to Him there is none" (CXII, 2-4). Praise belongs to God, praise equal to the praise of the angels stationed near to Him and the prophets sent by Him. And God bless His elect, Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets, and his virtuous, pure and sincere household, and give them peace. Then he began to supplicate. He occupied himself with prayer as tears ran from his blessed eyes. Then he said: O God, cause me to fear Thee as if I were seeing Thee, give me felicity through piety toward Thee, make me not wretched by disobedience toward Thee, choose the best for me by Thy decree (qadha') and bless me by Thy determination (qadar), that I may love not the hastening of what Thou hast delayed, nor the delaying of what Thou hast hastened. O God, appoint for me sufficiency in my soul, certainty in my heart, sincerity in my action, light in my eyes, and insight in my religion. Give me enjoyment of my bodily members, make my hearing and my seeing my two inheritors, help me against him who wrongs me, show me in him my revenge and my desires, and console thereby my eyes. O God, remove my affliction, veil my defects, forgive my offence, drive away my Satan, dissolve my debt, and give me, my God, the highest degree in the world to come and in this world. O God, to Thee belongs the praise, just as Thou created me and made me to hear and to see; and to Thee belongs the praise, just as Thou created me and made me a creature unimpaired as a mercy to me, while Thou hadst no need of my creation. My Lord, since Thou created me and then made straight my nature; my Lord, since Thou caused me to grow and made good my shape; my Lord, since Thou didst good to me and gavest me well-being in my soul; my Lord, since Thou preserved me and gavest me success; my Lord, since Thou blessed me and then guided me; my Lord, since Thou chosest me and gavest me of every good; my Lord, since Thou gavest me to eat and drink; my Lord, since Thou enriched me and contented me; my Lord, since Thou aided me and exalted me; my Lord, since Thou dothed me with Thy pure covering and smoothed the way for me by Thy sufficient fashioning: Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, aid me against the misfortunes of time and the calamities of nights and days, deliver me from the terrors of this world and the torments of the world to come and spare me from the evil of that which the evildoers do in the earth. O God, as for what I fear, spare me from it, and as for what I seek to avoid, guard me against it. in my soul and my religion watch over me, in my travelling protect me, in my family and my property appoint for me a successor, in what Thou hast provided for me bless me, in my soul humble me, in the eyes of men magnify me, from the evil of jinn and men preserve me, for my sins disgrace me not, for my inward secrets shame me not, for my action try me not, of Thy blessings deprive me not and to other than Thee entrust me not. My God, to whom wouldst Thou entrust me ? To a relative ? He would cut me off. Or to a stranger ? He would look at me with displeasure. Or to those who act toward me with arrogance ? But Thou art my Lord and the sovereign over my affair. I would complain to Thee of my exile and the remoteness of my abode, and that he whom Thou hast made sovereign over me despises me. My God, so cause not Thy wrath to alight upon me. If Thou becomest not wrathful with me I will have no care, glory be to Thee But Thy protection is more embracing. So I ask Thee, O Lord, by the Light of Thy Face by which the earth and the heavens are illuminated, shadows are removed, and the affairs of the ancients and the later folks are set aright, not to cause me to die when Thy wrath is upon me, nor to send down upon me Thy anger. The pleasure is Thine The pleasure is Thine, to be satisfied with me before that. There is no god but Thou, Lord of the Holy Land, the Sacred Monument, and the Ancient House, upon which Thou caused blessing to descend and which Thou madest a sanctuary for mankind. O He who pardons the greatest sins by His clemency! O He who lavishes blessings by His bounty! O He who gives abundance by His generosity! O Sustenance to me in my adversity! O Companion to me in my solitude! O Aid to me in my affliction! O Benefactor to me in my blessing! O my God and God of my fathers, Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac and Jacob! Lord of Gabriel, Michael and Israfil! Lord of Muhammad, the Seal of the Prophets, and his household, the chosen ones! Revealer of the Torah, the Gospel, the Psalms and the Criterion, and Sender down of Kaf Ha' Ya' Ayn Sad, Ta' Ha', Ya' Sin, and the Wise Quran! Thou art my cave (of refuge) when the roads for all their amplitude constrict me and the land for all its breadth is strait for me. If not for Thy mercy, I would have been among the perishing, and Thou annullest my slip. If not for Thy covering me, I would have been among the disgraced, and Thou confirmest me with help against my enemies. And if not for Thy helping me, I would have been among those overcome. O He who appropriated loftiness and exaltation to Himself, so His friends (awliya') are mighty through His might! O He before whom kings place the yoke of abasement around their necks, for they fear His overwhelming power! "He knows the treachery of the eyes and what the breasts conceal" (XL,19) and the unseen brought by time and fate. O He about whom none knows how He is but He! O He about whom none knows what He is but He! O He whom none knows but He! O He who squeezed the earth onto the water and held back the air with the sky! O He to whom belong the noblest Names! O He who possesses kindness which will never be cut off! O He who assigned the cavalcade to Joseph in the barren land, brought him out of the well and made him a king after slavery! O He who returned him to Jacob after "his eyes were whitened with sorrow that he was suppressing" (XII, 84)137 O He who removed affliction and tribulation from Job38 and restrained Abraham's hands from the sacrifice of his son after he had reached old age and his life had passed by! O He who answered the prayer of Zachariah and bestowed upon him John, not leaving him childless and alone! O He who brought Jonah out from the stomach of the fish! O He who parted the sea for the Children of Israel, then saved them and drowned Pharoah and his hosts! O He who sends winds heralding His mercy! O He who does not hurry (to act) against those of His creatures who disobey Him! O He who rescued the sorcerers after (their) long denial! They had early benefitted from His blessing, eating His provision and worshipping other than Him; they had opposed, denied and cried lies to His messengers. O God! O God! O Beginner, O Creator with no compeer! O Everlasting who has no end! O Living when nothing was alive! O Quickener of the dead! O "He Who is aware of the deserts of every soul" (XIII,33)! O He toward whom my gratitude was little, yet He deprived me not! My transgression was great, yet He disgraced me not! He saw me committing acts of disobedience, yet he made me not notorious! O He who watched over me in childhood! O He who provided for me in my adulthood! O He whose favors toward me cannot be reckoned and whose blessings cannot be repaid! O He who has confronted me with the good and the fair, and I have confronted Him with evil and disobedience in return! O He who led me to faith before I had come to know gratitude for His gracious bestowal O He upon whom I called when I was sick and He healed me, when naked and He clothed me, when hungry and He satisfied me, when thirsty and He gave me to drink, when abased and He exalted me, when ignorant and He gave me knowledge, when alone and He increased my number, when away and He returned me, when empty-handed and He enriched me, when in need of help and He helped me, and when rich and He took not from me. I refrained from (calling upon Thee in) all of that and Thou caused me to begin (to call). Thine are the praise and the gratitude! O He who overlooked my slip, relieved my distress, heard my prayer, covered my defects, forgave my sins, caused me to reach my desire, and helped me against my enemy! If I were to count Thy blessings, favors and generous acts of kindness I would not be able to reckon them. O my Protector! Thou art He who was gracious, Thou art He who blessed, Thou art He who worked good, Thou art He who was kind, Thou art He who was bounteous, Thou art He who perfected, Thou art He who provided, Thou art He who gave success, Thou art He who bestowed, Thou art He who enriched, Thou art He who contented, Thou art He who sheltered, Thou art He who sufficed, Thou art He who guided, Thou art He who preserved (from sin), Thou art He who covered (my sins), Thou art He who forgave, Thou art He who overlooked, Thou art He who established (in the earth), Thou art He who exalted, Thou art He who aided, Thou art He who supported, Thou art He who confirmed, Thou art He who helped, Thou art He who healed, Thou art He who gave well-being, Thou art He who honored - blessed art Thou and high exalted! So Thine is the praise everlastingly, and Thine is gratitude enduringly and forever! Then I, my God, confess my sins, so forgive me for them. I am he who did evil, I am he who made mistakes, I am he who purposed (to sin), I am he who was ignorant, I am he who was heedless, I am he who was negligent, I am he who relied (upon other than Thee), I am he who premeditated, I am he who promised, I am he who went back on his word, I am he who confessed (my sins) and I am he who acknowledged Thy blessings upon me and with me and then returned to my sins. So forgive me for them, O He who is not harmed by the sins of His servants nor needs He their obedience. He gives success through His aid and His mercy to whomsoever of them works righteousness. So praise belongs to Thee, My God and My Lord ! My God, Thou commanded me and I disobeyed and Thou forbade me and I committed what Thou hadst forbidden. I became such that I neither possessed any ??? of guiltlessness that I might ask forgiveness nor any power that I might be helped. Then by what means shall I turn toward Thee, O my Protector ! ? What, by my ears ? Or my eyes ? Or my tongue ? Or my hand ? Or my leg ? Are not all of them Thy blessings given to me ? And with all of them I disobey Thee, O my Protector! Thine is the argument and the means against me. O He who veiled me (my sins) from fathers and mothers lest they drive me away, from relatives and brothers lest they rebuke me, and from kings lest they punish me! If they had seen, O my Protector, what Thou hast seen from me, they would not have given me respite, they would have abandoned me and cut me off. So here I am, O my God, before Thee O Lord, humbled, abased, constrained, despised, neither possessing guiltlessness that I might ask forgiveness nor possessing power that I might be helped. There is no argument with which I might argue, nor can I say I committed not (sins) and worked not evil. And denial, were I to deny-my Protector-could hardly profit me. How could it ever do that ? For all of my members are witness against me for what I have done. And I acted with certainty and without ana doubt that Thou wilt ask me about great affairs, and that Thou art the equitable Judge who does no wrong. Thy justice is deadly for me and I flee from Thy every just act. If thou chastisest me, O my God, it is for my sins after Thy argument against me; and if Thou pardonest me, it is by Thy clemency, generosity and kindness. "There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee l Truly I am one of the wrong-doers" (XXI, 87). There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of those who pray forgiveness. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee I Truly I am one of those who profess Thy Unity. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of the fearful. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee I Truly I am one of those who are afraid. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of the hopeful. There is no god but Thou, glornot ny be to Thee! Truly I am one of those who yearn. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of those who say "There is no god but Thou". There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of the petitioners. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of the glorifiers. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee! Truly I am one of those who magnify. There is no god but Thou, glory be to Thee, my Lord, and the Lord of my fathers, the ancients! My God, this is my praise of Thee exalting Thy majesty, my sincerity in remembering Thee by professing Thy Unity, and my acknowledgment of Thy bounties by enumeration, even though I acknowledge that I cannot reckon them for their multitude, their abundance, their manifestness and their existence from ancient times until a present in which Thou hast never ceased to care for me through them from when Thou created me and brought me into existence in the beginning of (my) life, by enriching from poverty, relieving affliction, bringing ease, removing hardship, dispelling distress, and (giving me) well-being in body and soundness in religion. Were all the world's inhabitants, both the ancients and the later folk, to assist me in attempting to mention Thy blessing, I would not be able, nor would they, to do so. Holy art Thou and high exalted, a generous, mighty, merciful Lord. Thy bounties cannot be reckoned, nor Thy praise accomplished, nor Thy blessings repaid. Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, complete Thy blessings upon us and aid us in Thy obedience. Glory be to Thee! There is no god but Thou. O God, truly Thou hearest the destitute, removest the evil, succourest the afflicted, healest the sick, enrichest the poor, mendest the broken, hast mercy upon the young and helpest the old. There is no Support other than Thee and none powerful over Thee. And Thou art the Sublime, the Great. O Freer of the prisoner in irons ! O Provider of the infant child O Protection of the frightened refugee! O He who has no associate and no assistant! Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, and give me this evening the best of what Thou hast given to and bestowed upon any of Thy servants, whether a blessing Thou assignest, a bounty Thou renewest, a trial Thou avertest, an affliction Thou removest, a prayer Thou hearest, a good deed Thou acceptest or an evil deed Thou overlookest. Truly Thou art gracious, Aware of what Thou wilt, and Powerful over all things! O God, truly Thou art the nearest of those who are called, the swiftest of those who answer, the most generous of those who pardon, the most openhanded of those who give and the most hearing of those who are asked of. O Merciful and Compassionate in this world and the next! Like Thee none is asked of; and other than Thee none is hoped for. I prayed to Thee and Thou answered me, I asked of Thee and Thou gavest to me, I set Thee as my quest and Thou hadst mercy upon me, I depended upon Thee and Thou delivered me, I took refuge with Thee and Thou sufficed me, O God, so bless Muhammad, Thy servant, messenger and prophet, and his good and pure household, all of them. And complete Thy blessings upon us, gladden us with Thy gift and inscribe us as those who thank Thee and remember Thy bounties. Amen, amen, O Lord of all beings! O God, O He who owned and then was all-powerful, was all-powerful and then subjected, was disobeyed and then veiled (the sin of disobedience), and was prayed forgiveness and then forgave. O Goal of yearning seekers and utmost Wish of the hopeful! O He who "encompasses everything in knowledge" (LXV,12) and embraces those who seek pardon in tenderness, mercy and clemency! O God, truly we turn towards Thee this evening, which Thou honored and glorified through Muhammad, Thy prophet and messenger, the elect of Thy creation, the faithful guardian of Thy-revelation which bears good tidings and warning and which is the light- giving lamp which Thou gavest to those who surrender (al-muslimin) and appointed as a mercy to the world's inhabitants. O God, so bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, just as Muhammad is worthy of that from Thee, O Sublime! So bless him and his elect, good and pure household, all of them, and encompass us in Thy pardon, for to Thee cry voices in diverse languages. So appoint for us a share this evening, O God, of every good which Thou dividest among Thy servants, every light by which Thou guidest, every mercy which Thou spreadest, every blessing which Thou sendest down, every well-being with which Thou clothest and every provision which Thou outspreadest. O Most merciful of the merciful! O God, transform us now into men successful, triumphant, pious, and prosperous. Set us not among those who despair, empty us not of Thy mercy, deprive us not of that bounty of Thine for which we hope, and set us not among those deprived of Thy mercy, nor those who despair of the bounty of Thy gift for which we hope. Reject us not with the disappointed, nor those driven from Thy door. O Most Magnanimous of the most magnanimous ! O Most Generous of the most generous! Toward Thee we have turned having sure faith, repairing to and bound for Thy Sacred House. So help is with our holy rites, perfect for us our pilgrimage, pardon us, and give us well-being, for we have extended toward Thee our hands and they are branded with the abasement of confession. O God, so give us this evening what we have asked of Thee and suffice us in that in which we have prayed Thee to suffice us, for there is none to suffice us apart from Thee and we have no lord other than Thee. Put into effect concerning us is Thy decision, encompassing us is Thy knowledge and just for us is Thy decree. Decree for us the good and place us among the people of the good! O God make encumbent upon us through Thy magnanimity the mightiest wage, the most generous treasure and the lastingness of ease. Forgive us our sins, all of them, destroy us not with those who perish, and turn not Thy tenderness and mercy away from us, O Most Merciful of the merciful! O God, place us in this hour among those who ask of Thee and to whom Thou givest, who thank Thee and whom Thou increasest, who turn to Thee in repentance and whom Thou acceptest and who renounce all of their sins before Thee and whom Thou forgivest, O Lord of majesty and splendor! O God, purify us, show us the right way and accept our entreaty. O Best of those from whom is asked! And O Most Merciful of those whose mercy is sought! O He from whom is not hidden the eyelids' winking, the eyes' glancing, that which rests in the concealed, and that which is enfolded in hearts' hidden secrets I What, has not all of that been reckoned in Thy knowledge and embraced by Thy clemency ? Glory be to Thee and high indeed art Thou exalted above what the evil-doers say! The seven heavens and the earths and all that is therein praise Thee, and there is not a thing but hymns Thy praise. So Thine is the praise, the glory and the exaltation of majesty, O Lord of majesty and splendor, of bounty and blessing and of great favor! And Thou art the Magnanimous, the Generous, the Tender, the Compassionate. O God, give me amply of Thy lawful provision, bestow upon me well-being in my body and my religion, make me safe from fear and deliver me from the Fire. O God, devise not against me, lead me not on step by step, trick me not and avert from me the evil of the ungodly among jinn and men. Then he lifted his head and eyes toward Heaven. Tears were flowing from his blessed eyes as if they were two waterskins, and he said in a loud voice: O Most Hearing of those who hear! O Most Seeing of those who behold! O Swiftest of reckoners! O Most Merciful of the merciful! Bless Muhammad and the household of Muhammad, the chiefs, the fortunate. And, I ask of Thee, O God, my need. If Thou grantest it to me, what Thou holdest back from me will cause me no harm; and if Thou holdest it back from me, what Thou grantest me will not profit me. I ask Thee to deliver Irse from the Fire. There is no god but Thou alone, Thou hast no associate. Thine is the dominion, and Thine is the praise, and Thou art powerful over everything. O my Lord! O my Lord!
Then he said "O my Lord" over and over. Those who had been gathered around him, who had listened to an of his prayer and who had limited themselves to saying "amen" raised their voices in weeping. They stayed in his company until the sun went down, and then all of them loaded their mounts and set out in the direction of the Sacred Monument.

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