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Hazrat Imam Hassan Al Mujtaba


Hazrat Imam Hassan Al Mujtaba a.s
Asalamoalaka ya Imam Hassan a.s.
     
Name - Hassan
Title - Al-Mujtaba
Kunyat - Abul Muhammad
Born - Tuesday, 15th Ramadan 3 AH at Medina
Father's Name - Ali ibne abu Talib
Mother's Name - Fatima (Daughter of the Holy Prophet)
Died - at the age of 46 years, at Medina, on Thursday, 28th Safar, 50 AH.
Buried - at the cemetery of Jannat-ul-Baqi in Medina

Hazrat Imam Hasan (a.s), a brief look into his Life



(This is) an account of the Imam after the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, the date of his birth, the evidence for his Imamates the period of his succession, the time of his death, and the place of his grave. (It also provides) a brief outline of the reports about him.

The Imam after the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, was his son al-Hasan, the son of the mistress of the women of the worlds, Fatima, daughter of Muhammad, the Lord of messengers, may God bless him and his pure family. (Al-Hasan's) kunya was Abu Muhammad. He was born in Medina, on the night of the middle day of the month of Ramadan, three years after the hijra (624).
His mother, Fatima, peace be on her, brought him to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, on the seventh day in a silken shawl from Heaven, which Gabriel had brought down to the Prophet, may God bless him and his family. He named him Hasan and sacrificed a ram for him (in the ceremony of aqiqa).
[It is reported by a group (of authorities), including Ahmad b. Salih. al-Tamimi on the authority of Abd Allah b. Isa, on the authority of Jafar al-Sadiq b. Muhammad, peace be on him;]
Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was the most similar person to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, in form, manner and nobility.
[It is reported by a group (of authorities), including Ma'mar, on the authority of al-Zuhri, on the authority of Anas b. Malik, who said:]
No one was more like the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, than al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them.
[Ibrahim b. Ali al-Rafi'i reported on the authority of his father, on the authority of his grandmother Zaynab, daughter of Abu Rafi' - and Shabib b. Abi Rafi' al-Rafi'i on the authority of those who told him - she said:]
Fatima, peace be on her, brought her two sons, al-Hasan and al- Husayn, peace be on them, to the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, at the time when he was suffering from the sickness from which he died.
"Apostle of God," she said, "these are your two (grand) sons. Give them something as an inheritance."
"As for al-Hasan," he replied, "he has my form and my nobility. As for al-Husayn, he has my generosity and my bravery."
Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on him, was the testamentary trustee (wasi) of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, over his family, his children and his followers. He bequeathed him to look after his position and (the position of) his taxes (sadaqat) and he wrote him a covenant (of succession) which is well-known. His testamentary trusteeship is obvious in terms of the outlines of religion, the essential characteristic of wisdom and good-breeding. A great number of scholars have reported this trusteeship and many of the men of understanding have realised the truth of this through his (attitude to) the world.
Al-Hasan's Succession to the Caliphate and his Abdication
When the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, died, al- Hasan addressed the people. He reminded them of his right (to authority). The followers of his father pledged allegiance to him in terms of fighting those he fought and making peace with those with whom he made peace.
[Abu Mikhnaf Lut b. Yahya al-Azdi reported: Ashath b. Suwar told me on the authority of Abu Ishaq al-Sabi'i and others, who said;]
Al-Hasan b. Ali, peace be on them, addressed the people towards dawn on the night in which the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, died. He praised and glorified God and blessed the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. Then he said:
There has died tonight a man who was the first among the early (Muslims) in (good) actions. Nor did any later (Muslims) attain his level in (good) actions. He used to fight alongside the Apostle of God, may Allah bless him and his family, and protect him with his own life. The Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, used to send him forward with his standard while Gabriel supported him on his right and Michael supported him on his left. He would not return until God brought victory through his hands. He, peace be on him, has died on this the night on which Jesus, son of Mary, was taken up (to Heaven), on which Joshua, son of Nuh, the testamentary trustee (wasi) of Moses, peace be on him, died. He has left behind him no gold and silver except seven hundred dirhams of his stipend (ata'), with which he was intending to buy a servant for his family.
Then tears overcame him and he wept and the people wept with him.
Then he continued:
I am the (grand) son of the one who brought the good news. I am the (grand) son of the warner. I am the (grand) son of the man who, with God's permission, summoned (the people) to God. I am the (grand) son of the light which shone out (to the world) . I am of the House, from whom God has sent away abomination and whom God has purified thoroughly. I am of the House for whom God has required love in his Book, when God, the Most High, said: Say: I do not ask you for any reward except love for (my) kin. Whoever earns good, will increase good for himself [ XXXIII 33 ]. The good is love for us, the House.
Then he sat down.
Abd Allah b. al-Abbas, may God have mercy on him, arose in front of him and said:
People, this is the son of your Prophet, the testamentary trustee (wasi) of your Imam. So pledge allegiance to him.
The people answered him saying:
No one is more loved by us nor has anyone more right to succession (khilafa).
They rushed forward to pledge allegiance to him as successor. That was on Friday on the eleventh of the month of Ramadan in the year 40 A.H. (660). Then he assigned (the posts of) the tax collectors and he gave instructions to the governors (of the provinces). He sent Abd Allah b. al-Abbas to Basra. He took charge of all the matters.
When Mu'awiya b. Abi Sufyan learnt of the death of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and the people's pledge of allegiance to his son, al-Hasan, peace be on him, he sent a man of secretly to Kufa and a man from Banu al-Qayn to Basra. They were to write reports to him to undermine affairs for al-Hasan, peace be on him. Al-Hasan, peace be on him, learned of that. He ordered the Himyari to be brought out from among (the tribe) of Lakhm in Kufa. He had him brought out and executed. (Al-Hasan) wrote to al-Basra, ordering the Qayni to be brought out from among the Banu Sulaym. He was brought out and executed.
Then al-Hasan, peace be on him, wrote to Muawiya:
You sent men to use deception and to carry out assassinations and you sent out spies as if you want to meet (in battle). That is something which will soon happen so wait for it, if God wills. I have learnt that you have become haughty in a way that no wise man would become haughty. In that you are just as al-Awwal described:
Say to him who desires the contrary of the one who has died: Prepare for another like him, as if (from the same) root.
I and the one among us who has died are like the one who goes in the evening so that (the other) may come in the morning.
Muawiya replied to him with his letter, which there is no need to mention. There followed between him and al-Hasan, peace be on him, correspondences messages and disputes regarding the right of al- Hasan, peace be on him, to authority and the unlawful seizure of power of those who came before his father, peace be on him, and of Mu'awiya's attempt to strip the nephew of the Apostle of God, may God bless him anel his family, from his authority and of their (the House's) right to it apart from them. (All these) matters would take too long to describe.
Muawiya set off towards Iraq. When he reached the bridge of Manbij, al-Hasan, peace be on him, reacted. He sent Hujr b. Adi to order the leaders of Amman to set out and to call the people together for war.
They were slow to (answer) him and then they came forward. (Al- Hasan) had a mixed band of men: some of them belonged to his Sh'ia and to his father's: some of them were members of the Muhakimma (i.e. Kharijites) who were influenced by (the desire of) fighting Muawiya with every means (possible); some of them were men who loved discords and were anxious for booty; some of them were doubters; others were tribal supporters who followed the leaders of their tribes without reference to religion.
He set off until he came to Hammam Umar, then he went on to Dayr Kab. He stopped at Sabat, just before the bridge and spent the night there. In the morning, he, peace be on him, wanted to test his followers and make their situation clear with regard to obedience to him, so that in that way he might be able to distinguish his friends from his enemies and be in a clear mind (about his position) to meet Mu'awiya and the Syrians. He ordered the call to be made:
The prayer is a general one (which all should attend) (al-salat jamia).
They gathered and he went up on the pulpit and addressed them. He said:
Praise belongs to God whenever a man praises Him. I testify that there is no god but God whenever a man testifies to Him. I testify that Muhammad is His servant and His apostle whom He sent with the truth and whom He entrusted with revelation, may God bless him and his family. By God, I hope that I shall always be with God's praise and kindness. I am the sincerest of God's creatures in giving advice to them. I have not become one who bears malice to any Muslims nor one who wishes evil or misfortune tor him. Indeed what you dislike about unity (jama'a) is better for you than what you like about division. I see what is better for you better than you see for yourselves. Therefore do not oppose my commands and do not reject my judgement. May God forgive both me and you and may He guide me and you to that in which there is love and satisfaction.
[He reported:]
The people began to look at one another and asked each other, "What do you think he intends by what he has just said?
"We think that he intends to make peace with Muawiya and hand over the authority to him" they answered.
"By Gods the man has become an unbelievers they declared and they rushed towards his tent. They plundered him to the extent that they even took his prayer mat from under him. Then Abd al- Rahman b. Abd Allah b. Ja'al al-Azdi set on him and stripped his silk cloak from his shoulder. He remained sitting, still girt with his sword but without his cloak. He called for his horse and mounted it. Groups of his close associates and his Shia surrounded him and kept those who wanted (to attack) him away from him. He said:
Summon (the tribes of) Rabia and Hamdan to me.
They were summoned to him and they surrounded him and defended him, peace be on him, from the people. A mixed group of others went with him (as well). When he was passing through the narrow pass of Sabat, a man of Banu Asad called al-Jarrah b. Sinan caught hold of the reins of his mule. He had an axe in his hand. He cried:
God is greater (Allaku akbar)! You have become a polytheist, Hasan, just like your father became a polytheist before.
Then he stabbed him in the thigh. It penetrated right through to the bone. He seized (al-Hasan) by the neck and they both fell to the ground. A man from al-Hasan's Shi'a called Abd Allah b. Khatal al- Tai; pulled the axe away from his hand and struck him with it in the stomach. Another man called Zubyan b. Umara attacked him, struck him upon the nose and killed him. Another man who had been with (al-Jarrah) was caught and killed.
Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was carried on a stretcher to al- Mada'in where he was lodged with Sa'd b. Masud al-Thaqafi. The latter was the governor of (Ali), the commander of the faithful, peace be on him, there and al-Hasan had confirmed him in that position.
Al-Hasan, peace be on him, was distracted by his own (discomfort) and with treating his wound. (In the meantime) a group of the tribal leaders wrote secretly to Mu'awiya offering to accept his authority (lit. to listen and obey). They urged him to come to them and they guaranteed to hand over al-Hasan, peace be on him, when they got to his camp, or to kill him treacherously.
Al-Hasan, peace be on him, learnt of that when a letter came to him from Qays b. Sa'd, may God be pleased with him. He had sent Qays with Ubayd Allah b. Abbas (to go on ahead) when he had set out from Kufa to meet Muawiya and to drive him out of Iraq, and make himself a commander of a unified people (jama'a). He had said to Ubayd Allah:
If you are struck down, then the commander will be Qays b. Sad.
Qays b. Sad's letter arrived informing him that they had stopped Muawiya at a village called al-Habubiyya opposite Maskan. Then Muawiya had sent to Ubayd Allah b. Abbas, urging him to come to him and offering him a million dirhams, half of which he would give him immediately, and the other half on his entry into Kufa. Ubayd Allah had slipped away in the night with his close associates to (join) Muawiya's camp. In the morning the people found their leader missing. Qays b. Sa'd, may God be pleased with him, said the prayer with them and took charge of their affairs.
Al-Hasan's awareness of the people's desertion of him increased, (as did his awareness) of the corrupt intention of the Muhakkima (the Kharijites) against him, which they made obvious by cursing him, accusing him of disbelief, and declaring that it was lawful to shed his blood and plunder his property. There remained no one to protect him from his unfortunate predicament except the close associates from his father's Shia and his own Shia, and they were a group which could not resist the Syrian soldiers.
Muawiya wrote to him about a truce and peace treaty. He also sent him the letters of his followers in which they had guaranteed to kill him treacherously or to hand him over. He offered him as many conditions as he wanted, to answer his (call) for peace and he gave his (sworn) covenant by whose fulfilment everybody's interests would be served. Al-Hasan, peace be on him, did not trust him. He was aware of his deception and his attempts at assassination. However he could find no escape from assenting to his demands to abandon the war and bring about a truce because of the weakness of his followers' understanding of his right, their corrupt attitude towards him and their opposition to him. (In addition, he was aware) of the view of many of them in declaring it lawful to shed his blood and to hand him over to his rival. (He also knew) of his cousin's desertion (of him) and his joining his enemy, as well as the inclination of the people towards the immediate present and their reluctance (to show concern) for the future.
Therefore he, peace be on him, bound himself (in a treaty) with Muawiya as a result of the confirmation of the proof (of his situation) and with the excuses before God, the Most High, and all the Muslims, of what had taken place among them. He stipulated:
That the cursing of the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, should be abandoned and the practice of using the personal prayer (qunut) in the formal prayer (salat) (as prayer) against him should be set aside;
That his Shia, may God be pleased with them, should be given security and that none of them should be exposed to any evil; That each of them who had certain rights should attain those rights.
Muawiya accepted all that and made a treaty with him to observe that. He swore to him that he would fulfil it. When the truce had been concluded, Muawiya went on until he reached al-Nukhayla. That was on a Friday; he prayed the mid-morning prayer (duha al nahar) with the people, and he addressed them. In his address, he Said
By God, I have not fought against you to make you pray, nor to fast, nor to make the pilgrimage, nor to pay zakat. Indeed you do that (already). I fought so that I might have power over you and God has given that to me when you were reluctant to (obey) Him. Indeed I have been requested by al-Hasan, peace be on him, (to give him) things and I have given things to him. All of them are now under my foot. And from now on I will not fulfil anything.
Then he went on until he entered Kufa. He resided there for several days. When the pledge of allegiance by its inhabitants had to be carried out, he went up on the pulpit and addressed the people. He mentioned the commander of the faithful, peace be on him, and that he had taken from him and from al-Hasan, peace be on him, what he had taken.
Al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, were present. Al- Husayn, peace be on him, rose to reply but al-Hasan, peace be on him, took him by the hand and made him sit down. Then he, himself, (al-Hasan) arose and spoke:
O you who mention Ali, I am al-Hasan and Ali was my father. You are Muawiya and your father was Sakhr (Abu Sufyan). My mother was Fatima and your mother was Hind. My grand father was the Apostle of God and your grandfather was Harb. My grandmother was Khadija and your grandmother was Futayla. May God curse him who tries to reduce our reputation and to diminish our nobility, who does evil against our antiquity and yet who has been ahead of us in unbelief and hypocrisy.
Groups of the people in the mosque shouted out: "Amen, Amen"
When the peace between al-Hasan, peace be on him, and Muawiya was concluded in the way we have mentioned, al-Hasan, peace be on him, left for Medina. He resided there, restraining his anger, staying close to his house, and awaiting the command of his Lord, the Mighty and High, until Muawiya had completed ten years of his administration. (Then) the latter decided to have the pledge of allegiance given to his son, Yazid, (as his successor). He communicated secretly with Ju'da, daughter of al-Ash'ath b. Qays- she was the wife of al-Hasan, peace be on him - to urge her to poison him. He gave an undertaking to her that he would marry her to his son, Yazid, and he sent her a hundred thousand dirhams. Juda gave him the poison to drink but he lingered on sick for forty days. He passed along his (final) road in the month of Safar in the year 50 A. H. (670). At that time, he was forty-eight years of age. His succession (to the Imamate) had been for ten years. His brother and testamentary trustee (wasp), al-Husayn, peace be on him, undertook the washing and shrouding of his body, and buried him with his grand mother, Fatima, daughter of Asad b. Hashim b. Abd Manaf, may God be pleased with her, in (the cemetery) of al Baqi.
Reports of the Cause of the Death of al-Hasan, Peace be on him, and of Mu'awiya Poisoning him, the Story of his Burial and the Actions and Statements Concerning that.
[Isa b. Mihran reported: Ubayd Allah b. al-Sabb'ah told us: Jarir told us on the authority of Mughira, who said:]
Muawiya sent to Juda daughter of al-Ashath b. Qays:
I will arrange for you to marry my son, Yazid, on condition that you poison al-Hasan.
He also, sent her a hundred thousand dirhams.
She did that: she poisoned al-Hasan, peace be on him. (Mu'awiya) gave her the money but did not marry her to Yazid. Instead he gave her a man from the family of Talha as a substitute. The latter gave her children. Whenever any argument occurred between them and the clans of Quraysh, they would revile them saying:
Sons of a woman who poisons her husbands.
[Isa b. Mihran reported: 'Uthman b. Umar told me Ibn Awn told us on the authority ot 'Umar b. lshaq, who said.]
I was with al-Hasan and al-Husayn, peace be on them, in the house. Al-Hasan, peace be on him, came in from outside and then went out again. He said:
I have been given poison to drink several times but I have never been given poison like this. A bit of my liver has come out of my mouth and I began to turn it over with a stick I had.
Who gave you the poison to drink, al-Husayn, peace be on him, asked him, and what do you want for him? Do you want him killed? If he may remain as he is, then God will be more terrible in His vengeance than you. It he may not remain as he is, then I should like to be free of any blame.
[ Abd Allah b. Ibrahim reported on the authority of Ziyad al- Makhariqi, who said:]
When death was close to al-Hasan, peace he on him, he summoned al-Husayn, peace be on him, and said.
My brother, I am leaving you and joining my Lord. I have been given poison to drink and have spewed my liver into a basin. I am aware of the person who poisoned me and from where I have been made a subject to this deceitful action. I will oppose him before God, the Mighty and High. Therefore by the right I have with regard to you, say nothing about that and wait for what God, the Mighty and High, will decide concerning me. When I have died, shut my eyes, wash me and shroud me. Then carry me on my bier to the grave of my grandfather, the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, so that I may renew my covenant with him. After that take me to the grave of my grandmother, Fatima daughter of Asad, may God be pleased with her, and bury me ther. My brother, the people will think that you intend to bury me with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. For that reason, they will gather to prevent you from doing it. I swear by God that you should not shed even your blood into the cupping-glass in (carrying out) my command.
Then he made his testamentary bequests to his family and his children. (He gave him) his heirlooms and the things which the Commander of the faithful, peace be on him, had bequeathed to him when he had made him his successor, had declared him worthy to occupy his position, and had indicated to his Shia that he was his successor, and set him up as their sign-post after himself.
When he passed on his (final) journey, al-Husayn, peace be on him, washed and shrouded his (body). Then he carried him on his bier. Marwan and those of the Banu Umayya who were with him had no doubt that they would try to bury him beside the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. They gathered together and armed themselves. When al-Husayn, peace be on him, approached the tomb of the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family, with (the body of al-Hasan) so that he might renew his covenant with him, they came towards them with their group. 'A'isha had joined them on a mule and she was saying:
What is there between you and me that you should allow someone I don't want to, to enter my house?
Marwan began to recite:
O Lord, battle is better than ease.
(Then he went on:)
Should Uthman be buried in the outskirts of Medina and al-Hasan be buried alongside the Prophet, may God bless him and his family? That will never be while I carry a sword.
Discord was about to occur between the Banu Umayya and the Banu Hashim. Ibn 'Abbas hurried to Marwan and said to him;
Go back to where you came from, Marwan. Indeed we do not intend to bury our companion with the Apostle of God, may God bless him and his family. But we want him to be able to renew his covenant with him by visiting him. Then we will take him back to his grandmother, Fatima, and bury him alongside her according to his last instructions concerning that. If he had enjoined that he should be buried alongside the Prophet, may God bless him and his family, you know that you would be the least able to deter us from that. However, he, peace be on him, was much too aware of God and His Apostle and the sacredness of his tomb to bring bloodshed to it as others have done (who) have entered it without his permission.
Then he went to A'isha and said to her:
What mischief you bring about, one day on a mule and one day on a camel! Do you want to extinguish the light of God and fight the friends (awliya') of God? Go Back ! You have been given assurance against what you fear and have learned what you wanted (to know). By God, victory will come to this House, even if it is after some time.
Al-Husayn, peace be on him, said:
By God, if there had been no injunction to me from al-Hasan, peace be on him, to prevent bloodshed and that I should not even pour blood into a cupping-glass in (carrying out) his command, you would have known how the swords of God would have taken their toll from you, you have broken the agreement which was made between you and us, you have ignored the conditions which we made with him for ourselves.
Then they went on with (the body of) al-Hasan, peace be on him, and they buried him in (the cemetery of) al-Baqi' beside his grandmother, Fatima daughter of Asad b. Hashim b. 'Abd Manaf, may God be pleased with her.


Sulh al-Hasan
The Peace Treaty of al-Hasan

by: Shaykh Radi Al-Yasin
Translated by: Jasim al-Rasheed
Ansarian Publication
P.O. Box 187
22 Shohada Ave. Qom
Islamic Republic of Iran
Tel: 0098 251 7741744
Fax: 0098 251 7742647


TABLE OF CONTENTS



Publisher's Preface

Introduction

Author's Preface

Chapter 1: Imam Al-Hasan (Peace Be On Him)

Chapter 2: Before The Pledge Of Allegiance

Chapter 3: The Pledge Of Allegiance

Chapter 4: Kufa During The Days Of The Pledge Of Allegiance

Chapter 5: Determination To Wage War

Chapter 6: Jihad And Leadership

Chapter 7: The Number Of The Army

Chapter 8: The Members Of The Army

Chapter 9: 'Ubayd Allah Ibn 'Abbas

Chapter 10: The Beginning Of The End

Chapter 11: Attitude Towards Confusion

Chapter 12: Between The Doctrine And Supreme Authority

Chapter 13: Sacrifice

Chapter 14: Secret Of The Attitude

Chapter 15: The Motives Of The Two Parties For Making Peace

Chapter 16: Peace Treaty

Chapter 17: Prominent Texts In The Peace Treaty

Chapter 18: Meeting In Kufa

Chapter 19: New Field

Chapter 20: Fulfilling The Stipulations

Chapter 21: Mu'awiya And The Shi'a Of 'Ali,Peace Be On Him

Chapter 22: Conclusion

Chapter 23: Comparison Between The Conditions Of Al- Hasan And The Conditions Of Al- Husayn

THE LIFE OF IMAM
AL-HASAN AL-MUJTABA

By:
Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi

Translation by:
Jasim al-Rasheed

Author: Baqir Shareef al-Qurashi
Translator: Jasim al-Rasheed
Editor: Abdullah Al-Shahin
Publisher: Ansariyan Publications – Qum
First Edition 1427 -2006 - 1385
Thamin Al-a'immah Press
Quantity: 2000
Number of Pages: 744
Size: 162 x 229 mm
ISBN: 964-438-794-5

ALL RIGHTS RECORDED AND RESERVED FOR THE PUBLISHER



 Ansariyan Publications
P.O. Box 187
22 Shohada St., Qum
Islamic Republic of  Iran
Tel: 0098 251 7741744 Fax: 7742647
Email: ansarian@noornet.net

www.ansariyan.net & www.ansariyan.org


بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَى آدَمَ وَنُوحًا وَآلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَآلَ عِمْرَانَ عَلَى الْعَالَمِينَ. ذُرِّيَّةً بَعْضُهَا مِنْ بَعْضٍ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ.
آل عمران 33 - 34
إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمْ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا.
الأحزاب33
قُلْ لَا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَى وَمَنْ يَقْتَرِفْ حَسَنَةً نَزِدْ لَهُ فِيهَا حُسْنًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ.
الشورى 23
الَّذِينَ يُنْفِقُونَ فِي السَّرَّاءِ وَالضَّرَّاءِ وَالْكَاظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ وَالْعَافِينَ عَنْ النَّاسِ وَاللَّهُ يُحِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ.
آل عمران 134
IN THE NAME OF ALLAH, THE MERCIFUL, THE COMPASSIONATE
Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the
descendants of Imran above the nations. Offspring, one of the other; and
Allah is Hearing, Knowing. (Quran, 33-34)
Allah only desires to keep away the uncleanness from you, O people of the
House and to purify you a (thorough) purifying.(Quran, 33:33)
I do not ask of you any reward for it except love for (my) kin; and whoever
earns good, We will give him more of good; surely Allah is Forgiving,
Grateful. (Quran, 42:23)
Those who spend (benevolently) in ease as well as in straitness, and those
who restrain (their) anger and pardon men; and Allah loves the doers
of good (to others). (Quran, 134)
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Dedication 4
Foreword 21
Introduction 25
Preface: The Hashemites and the Umayyads: Al-Hasan and Mu’awiya 31
43
  Her High Position
Imam Ali proposes to Fatima
The Dower
The Trousseau
The Sermon of the Contract
The Banquet
The Wedding
 
45
46
48
49
50
51
52
 

55
  Rites at the Birth of a Child
1. The azan and the iqama
2. The Name
3. Aqiqa
4. Shaving the Hair
5. Circumcision
6. His kunya
His Nicknames
His Features
 
56
56
57
58
58
59
59
59
59
 

61
  His Memorizing of Traditions
 
63
 

66
  The Holy Qur’an
1. The Verse of Love (al-Mawadda)
2. The Verse of Purification (Tattheer)
The Verse is a Proof on the Protection from Sins
The People meant by the Verse
The Verse does not include the Prophet’s Wives
Ikrima’s Claims
The Verse of Mubahala
The Sura of Hal Ata
The Prophet’s Traditions
The first Group
The Second Group
The Third Group
The Muslims honor al-Hasan
 
66
66
68
68
68
70
71
72
73
75
75
77
82
86
 

87
  The Farewell Pilgrimage
The Declaration at Ghadir Khum
The Prophet seeks Forgiveness
The Regiment of Usama
His Illness becomes more critical
Retaliation
Fatima feels Sorrow
The Prophet gives what he has as Alms
The great Disaster
To the High Comrade
 
88
88
92
93
96
97
98
99
100
102
 

106
  Al-Saqifa
Umar’s Explanatory Speech
The Ansar are surprised
The Pledge of Allegiance to Abu Bakr
Imam Ali refrains from paying Homage to Abu Bakr
Arguments and Debates
1. Imam Ali
2. Fatima Al-Zahra’
3. Imam al-Hasan
4. Salman al-Farisi
5. Ammar Bin Yasir
6. Khuzayma Bin Thabit
7. Abul Haythem bin al-Tayhan
8. Sahl bin Hunayf
9. Uthman bin Hunayf
10. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari
11. Utba bin Abi Lahab
Imam Ali’s House is attacked
Fadak is confiscated
Abu Bakr regrets
Al-Zahra’s Sorrows
To the Most High Comrade
Imam Ali inclines to Isolation
Abu Bakr dies
The Caliphate of Umar
Imam Ali isolates himself
Umar is assassinated
The Consultative Committee
A Viewpoint on the Consultative Committee
The Election
 
107
109
111
112
116
117
117
119
123
123
124
125
125
125
125
126
126
126
128
131
133
135
139
140
143
144
145
147
152
155
 

162
  His Pardoning Ubaydillah
Taha Husayn’s Defense
His Fiscal Policy
His Gifts to the Umayyads
Abu Sufyan
Al-Harith bin al-Hakam
Abdullah bin Sa’d
Al-Hakam bin Abi al-Aas
His Fighting against Islam
His Disparaging the Prophet
The Prophet curses him
The Prophet banishes him to al-Ta’if
His Return to Yathrib
His Undertaking the Endowments
Sa’eed Bin al-Aas
Al-Waleed Bin Aqaba
Marwan Bin al-Hakam
Uthman is criticized
Uthman apologizes
His Gifts to the Leading Personalities
He alone Possesses properties
With Dr. Taha Husayn
Reflection
Uthman’s Governors over the Cities
Al-Waleed Bin Aqaba
His Childhood
His Transgression
His Authority over Kufa
His Drinking Wine
Dr Taha Husayn’s Viewpoint
Al-Waleed is punished
Sa’eed Bin al-Aas
Abdullah Bin Aamir
Mu’awiya Bin Abi Sufyan
Abdullah Bin Sa’d
His Punishing the Prophet’s Companions
1. Abdullah Bin Mas‘ud
2. Abu Tharr
Uthman banishes Abu Tharr to al-Sham
Uthman banishes Abu Tharr to Al-Rabatha
3.Ammar Bin Yasir
Fabricated Lies against Imam al-Hasan
The Revolt
A. the Egyptian delegation
B. the Kufan delegation
C. The Delegation of Basrah
His Seeking Help from the Cities
The Day of the House
Imam al-Hasan’s Attitude
Uthman is finished off
 
164
167
169
170
170
171
171
171
172
172
172
173
173
173
174
174
174
176
177
178
179
180
181
183
184
184
185
186
186
186
189
191
193
195
197
199
199
202
204
205
209
213
215
216
216
216
219
220
221
221
 

223
  His Imamate
The meaning of the Imamate
People are in need of Imamate
The Imam’s Duties
His Qualities
His Appointment
His Noble Morals
His Generosity
His Worship and Fear of Allah
His Ritual Ablution and Prayers
His Performing the Hajj
Reciting the Qur’an
Giving his Properties as Alms
His Asceticism
His Dignity and Veneration
His Scientific Talents
His good Style and Eloquence
Social manners
Noble Moral Traits
Vices
Urging to seek Knowledge
The Excellence of Reason
The Excellence of the Qur’an
Supplication
Politics
A Companion
Munificence and good Deeds
Miserliness
Humbleness
Relying on Allah
Refuting Compulsion
Fear of Allah
Preaching and Guidance
Seeking Livelihood
Mosques
The manners of Having Food
Devotion to the Ahlul Bayt
Warning against those who distort Allah’s Book
Al-Shahid and al-Mashhood
Some of al-Hasan’s Sermons
His short, wise Sayings
His composing of Poetry
 
223
223
223
224
225
226
227
230
237
238
238
238
238
239
240
242
242
243
245
245
246
246
246
246
247
247
248
249
249
249
249
250
250
252
252
253
253
253
254
256
257
258
 

259
  The Pledge of Allegiance
The Prophet’s Companions support the Imam
1. Thabit Bin Qays
2. Khuzayma Bin Thabit
3. Sa’sa’a Bin Souhan
4. Malik al-Ashtar
5. Uqba Bin Amr
Quraysh becomes silent with Fear
Al-Qu’aad. 265
Confiscating the plundered Properties
Deposing the Governors
Announcing Equality
Spreading of Justice
General Freedoms
His Recommendations to his Son al-Hasan
 
259
262
262
262
263
263
263
263
265
267
268
268
269
270
271
 

278
  Talha and al-Zubayr’s mutiny against the Imam
A’isha rebels against the Imam
The Reasons for her Mutiny
The Declaration of the Rebellion
With Umm Salama
The Advance towards Basra
Al-Haw’ab
In the Quarters of Basra
The Conclusion of the Truce
Treachery and Treason
The Murder of Hakeem Bin Jabalah
Imam Ali seeks the Help of Kufa
Imam Ali delegates al-Hasan
Fabrication against Imam al-Hasan
The Two Parties meet
Ibn al-Zubayr’s Speech
Al-Hasan’s Speech
The Summons to Allah’s Book
The Declaration of the War
Al-Zubayr is killed
A’isha is surrounded
Al-Azd
Banu Dabba
Banu Najiya
The Camel is killed
A’isha is pardoned
The Amnesty
A’isha is released
 
278
281
283
286
287
289
290
292
294
294
296
296
298
302
304
306
306
307
308
309
311
311
312
312
312
313
314
314
 

318
  Mu’awiya’s Mutiny
Delegation of Jareer
Mu’awiya corresponds with Amr
Perplexity and Astonishment
His Arrival in Sham
The Cheap Bargain
Jareer is rejected
Mu’awiya marches towards Siffin
Imam Ali gets ready for the Battle
Al-Hasan’s Oration
Al-Hasan with Sulayman
The March towards Siffin
The fighting for Water
Mediators are sent to Mu’awiya
Declaration of War
Al-Hasan with Ubaydillah
The Inclusive War
Ammar is martyred
Raising Copies of the Qur’an
The Great Sedition
Al-Ash‘ari is chosen
The Document of the Arbitration
The thought of the Harawriyya
Protest and Debates
The two Arbitrators hold a Meeting
Imam al-Hasan’s Speech
The Mutiny of the Kharijites
The Battle of al-Nahrawan
The horrible consequences
1. The Mutiny of the Troops
2. Losing his prominent Companions
3. Occupation and Invasion
4. Sedition of al-Khurayt
 
318
321
323
323
324
325
326
326
327
328
328
329
330
332
334
336
337
340
344
346
350
351
353
35
357
360
363
364
367
368
368
369
372
 

374
  The Mean Plot
The Great Disaster
His Recommendations
Appointing al-Hasan as Imam
To the Better World
Imam Ali is prepared for Burial
The killer is punished
 
374
375
380
382
383
384
384
 

387
  1. Accepting the Caliphate
2. The general Pledge of Allegiance
3. Making the State firm
4. Historical Mistakes
A. Al-Mas‘udi
B. Farid Hajji
C. Al-Khudhari
D. Taha Husayn
 
393
394
394
395
395
395
395
396
 

398
  The Umayyad Conference
The Decisions of the Conference
Imam al-Hasan’s Note
Mu’awiya’s Answer
Ibn Abbas’s Note
Mu’awiya’s Answer
Ibn Abbas’s Letter to Imam al-Hasan
Imam al-Hasan’s Letter to Mu’awiya
Mu’awiya’s Answer
Mu’awiya’s Note
Imam al-Hasan’s Answer
 
398
399
399
400
400
400
401
404
408
412
413
 

414
  Mu’awiya’s Note to his Governors
The Iraqis are terrified
Choosing of Ubaydillah
The Number of the Army
A Description of the Army
1. The Shia
2. Al-Muhakkima
3. The Ambitious
4. The doubters
5. The Followers of Leaders
Historical Mistakes
Al-Hakim
Al-Ya‘qubi
Ibn Katheer
Dr. Taha Husayn
 
415
416
420
420
423
423
424
424
424
424
425
425
425
425
426
 
 
428
  Maskan Events
Sending Spies
Bribing the prominent Personalities
Seducing Ubaydillah
Perfidy and Treason
The Army is disordered
Lies and Rumors
A Summary of the Events
The Events of Al-Mada’in
The Summons to Peace
Bribing the Leaders
The Effect of Bribe
Plundering Imam al-Hasan’s Properties
Accusing him of Unbelief
Assassinating Him
The terrible Attitude
 
428
429
429
429
430
431
432
433
433
434
434
435
436
437
437
439
 
 
443
  Al-Safadi
Dr. Philip Hatty
Al-Alaa’ili
R. M. Ronalds
Lamans
The Army is divided
The Party Opposition
The Harawri Party
Boredom of War
The Successive Battles
The Despair of Booties
Missing the aware Figures
The Summons to Peacemaking
Ubaydillah’s Treason
The Treason of Rabee’a
Mu’awiya’s Bribes
The false Rumors
The Enemy’s Forces
The Obedience of the Army
Simplicity and Naiveté
The unanimous Agreement
The huge Army
His Entourage
Enormous Properties
The Assassination of Imam Ali
Sparing of Blood
Mu’awiya’s Favor
Events of al-Mada’in
The Prophetic Traditions
Infallibility
1. Al-Shareef al-Murtadha
2. Sayyid Ibn Tawus
Showing the Umayyad Reality
Abu Sufyan and Hind
The Prophetic Traditions about Mu’awiya
His Hostility to the Prophet
Abolishing the prescribed Penalties
Regarding Usury as lawful
The azan in the Eid Prayer
The Sermon before the Eid Prayer
Imposing Zakat on Gifts
Perfuming himself
Using silver and gold Wares
Wearing silk Garments
Seizing the People’s Properties as lawful
Buying the Religions
His Dissoluteness and Impudence
Fabricating Traditions
Ascribing Ziyad to his Father
The inclusive Displeasure
A. Imam al-Hasan
B. Imam al-Husayn
C. Yunus Bin Ubayd
D. Abdurrahman bin al-Hakam
E. Abul Aryan
E. Abu Bakra
G. Yazid bin al-Mufarragh
H. Al-Hasan al-Basri
I. Al-Saktwari
His Governors
A. Samra Bin Jundub
B. Bisr Bin Arta’a
C. Abu Hurayra
D. Ziyad Bin Abeeh
The Inclusive Oppression
The Policy of Ahl al-Bayt
The Constructive Policy
Their Viewpoint of the Caliphate
The Ideals
Justice
Equality
Freedom
Frankness and Truthfulness
The Governors
Military Service
Fiscal Policy
 
443
444
444
444
445
446
447
447
449
449
449
451
451
451
452
452
454
454
455
456
457
458
458
459
460
460
461
461
462
464
464
465
466
467
470
473
474
474
475
476
476
476
476
477
477
477
478
481
489
494
494
495
495
495
497
498
499
500
501
502
504
507
509
512
514
517
518
518
519
520
521
522
522
525
526
527
 

531
  The Place of the Peacemaking
The Year of the Peacemaking
Study and Analysis
Mu’awiya should act according to Allah’s Book
The Succession
The general Security
Mu’awiya should not be called the Commander of the faithful
Witness is not borne in the presence of Mu’awiya
Mu’awiya should give up cursing Imam Ali
The general Security
The land tax of Dar Abjard
Mu’awiya should not oppress them
 
537
537
538
539
539
539
540
540
540
540
541
542
 

543

551
  Imam al-Hasan’s Speech
The Attitude of Leader Qays
 
552
555
 

559
  Hijr Bin Adiy
Adiy Bin Hatim
Al-Musayyab Bin Nujba
Malik Bin Dhamra
Sufyan Bin Abi Layla
Bashir al-Hamadani
Sulayman Bin Surad
Abdullah Bin al-Zubayr
Abu Sa‘eed
A Companion
 
559
560
561
562
562
563
563
565
565
566
 

567
  His School
Being kind to the Poor
Seeking Protection with him
With Habeeb Bin Maslama
Imam al-Hasan refuses to be related by Marriage to the Umayyads
With Mu’awiya in Yathrib
The Political Party
 
569
570
571
573
574
576
578
 

580
  His Debates
 
581
 

606
  Cursing Imam Ali
The Deniers of the Cursing
Sa‘d Bin Abi Waqqas
Umm Salama
Abdullah Bin Abbas
Al-Ahnaf Bin Qays
Katheer Bin Katheer
Anees al-Ansari
Zayd Bin Arqam
Abu Bakra
The Land tax of Dar Abjard
The Followers of Imam Ali (a.s)
Hijr Bin Adiy
Hijr’s Companions are martyred for the Creed
Abdurrahman
Sayfi Bin Faseel
Qubaysa Bin Rabee‘a
Shurayk bin Shaddad al-Hadrami
Kaddam bin Hayyan al-‘Anzi
Muhriz bin Shihab al-Tamimi
The Echo of the Disaster
Imam al-Husayn
A’isha
Al-Rabee‘ Bin Ziyad
Al-Hasan al-Basri
Abdullah Bin Umar
Mu’awiya Bin Khudayj
Rasheed al-Hijri
Amr Bin al-Hamaq al-Khuza‘iy
Awfa Bin Hisn
Juwayriyya Bin Mus’hir al-Abdi
Abdullah Bin Yahya al-Hadhrami
Demolishing the Shia’s Houses
The Shia’s Witness is not accepted
Terrorism and Arresting
1. Muhammad Bin Abi Hudhayfa
2. Abdullah Bin Hashim al-Mirqal
3. Abdullah Bin Khalifa al-Ta’iy
4. Sa‘sa‘a Bin Souhan
5. Adiy Bin Hatim
6. Jariya Bin Qudama
Terrorizing the Wives of the Shia men
Al-Zarqa’, daughter of Adiy
Umm al-Khayr al-Bariqiyya
Souda, daughter of Imarah
Umm al-Bara’, daughter of Safwan
Bekara al-Hilaliya
Arwa, daughter of al-Harith
Ukrisha, daughter of al-Atrash
Al-Darimiyya al-Hajuniya
Imam al-Husayn holds a Meeting
The Pledge of Allegiance to Yazid
Al-Mughira’s Summons
Delegations of the Countries
Mu’awiya’s first Journey to Yathrib
Mu’awiya’s second Journey to Yathrib
Imam al-Husayn’s Speech
A’isha and the Allegiance to Yazid
 
607
613
613
614
614
617
618
618
619
619
620
620
622
628
629
630
631
632
632
632
633
633
633
634
635
635
635
636
637
641
642
642
643
643
643
644
645
648
650
654
656
657
657
659
662
664
665
667
671
672
674
675
678
679
686
691
691
693
 

695
  Al-Mansur’s fabricated Lies
Lamens’s Lies
1. Khawla al-Fazariyya
2. Ja’dah daughter of al-Ash‘ath
3. A’isha al-Khath‘amiyya
4. Umm Kulthoom daughter of al-Fadhl bin Abbas
5. Umm Ishaq daughter of Talha al-Tamimi
6. Umm Basheer daughter of Mas‘ud al-Ansari
7. Hind daughter of Abdurrahman bin Abi Bakr
8. A daughter of Amr bin Ahyam al-Manqari
9. A woman from Thaqif
10. A woman from Zarara’s daughters
11. A woman from Banu Shayban
12. Umm Abdullah
13. Umm al-Qasim
1. Al-Qasim
2. Abu Bakr
3. Abdullah
4. Zayd
5. Al-Hasan
 
702
704
705
706
707
708
708
708
708
708
708
708
708
708
708
708
710
710
710
711
 

712
  Strange Sayings
1. His Death of Tuberculosis
2. His Death of a poisoned Stick
3. He was poisoned while circumambulating the Kaaba
4. He died a natural Death
His will to al-Husayn
His will to Muhammad
Toward the Most High Comrade
The Imam is prepared for Burial
Processions of Escorting
The Prayer over the Corpse
Great Sedition
A’isha permits Abdurrahman to be buried
At the Tomb
The Echo of the Disaster
1. Yathrib
2. Mecca
3. Basra
4. Kufa
Mu’awiya’s Delight
 
715
715
715
716
716
719
721
722
724
724
724
725
726
730
732
732
732
732
733
734
 

APPENDIX: ZIYARAH OF IMAM AL-HASAN 738

IMAM  HASAN
AND  CALIPHATE

الإمام الحسن (ع) و الخلافة (باللغته الانجليزية)
 

 

Author: Qurrat-ul-Ain Abidiy
Translator: Sibtul Hasan Hansvi
Editor: Abdullah Al-Shahin
English Editor: Zahir Davadani
Publisher: Ansariyan Publication
First Edition 1385 -1427 - 2006
Quds Press
Quantity: 2000
Number of Pages: 168
Size: 148 x 210 mm
ISBN: 964-438-834-8

ALL RIGHTS RECORDED AND RESERVED FOR THE PUBLISHER



 Ansariyan Publications
P.O. Box 187
22 Shohada St., Qum
Islamic Republic of  Iran
Tel: 0098 251 7741744 Fax: 7742647
Email: ansarian@noornet.net

www.ansariyan.net & www.ansariyan.org



5

CONTENTS

Editor’s Introduction 7
Imam Hasan and Allegiance 9
Historical background of Koofa 21
Imam Mujtaba and Caliphate 29
War Preparations 45
  An objection and its reply
The second objection
49
50
     
The constituents of the Army and its Quality 57
  Shi’a
The supporters of Feudalism
The group of Self-seekers
Khawarij
The doubters
59
60
60
61
61
   
The strength of the Army 65
  Objections
The objection by Musayyab b. Najih Fazari
Ibne Qutaiba’s narration
The speech by Ziyad b. Abeeh
68
70
70
71
   
Selection of the Leader 75


6
  Rebuttal of another Misunderstanding
Raazi Aale Yasin’s analysis about the leader’s selection
78
79
     
From Maskin to Madain 85
  What happened in Madain?
Meeting with the army oficers
Imam’s sermon before peace
91
96
98
   
Some Historical Extracts 103
  Analysis of Zahri’s narration 111
   
The terms of the Peace Treaty 117
  The blank paper
The Terms and Conditions of the Peace Treaty
Analysis of the Terms and Conditions
1- Following the Book and Sunnah
Monarchy or Caliphate
2 - The future of Caliphate
3 - The restoration of Peace and Order
4 -The Shias of Ali ibne Abee Talib
5 - Conspiracy against Ahle Bait
6 - The undesirable schism of reviling Hazrat Ali (as)
7 - The Bait-ul-Maal of Koofa
118
123
124
124
125
128
131
132
133
134
   
The Peace Treaty Its Consequences and After Effects 143
  Conclusion 153
   
The Formal Announcement of Peace 155

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